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View Diary: DOJ quietly drops investigation of Monsanto (145 comments)

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  •  2,4-D is bad. Make no mistake. It is known to harm (0+ / 0-)

    "non-target organisms" (i.e. animals) and has known health effects in humans.

    The modes of toxicity to animals from the acid, ester and salt forms of 2,4-D are similar. The primary exception is that the
    salt and acid forms can be extreme eye irritants.3 2,4-D is actively secreted by the proximal tubules of the kidney, and tox-
    icity appears to result when renal clearance capacity is exceeded.3 Dose-dependent toxic effects include damage to the
    eye, thyroid, kidney, adrenals, and ovaries or testes.3 In addition, researchers have observed neurotoxicity, reproductive
    toxicity, and developmental toxicity.3 Chlorophenoxy herbicides exhibit a variety of mechanisms of toxicity, including
    dose-dependent cell membrane damage leading to central nervous system toxicity,13 interference with cellular metabo-
    lism involving acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA),13 and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation due to either the disrupted CoA
    activity or cellular membrane damage.13
    Signs of Toxicity – Humans

    • No occupational studies were found reporting signs or symptoms following exposure to 2,4-D under normal usage.

    • Symptoms of acute oral exposure to 2,4-D include vomiting, diarrhea, headache, confusion, aggressive or bizarre behavior.
    A peculiar odor is sometimes noted on the breath. Skeletal muscle injury and renal failure may also occur.18 Systemic toxic-
    ity is mainly associated with suicide attempts.18

    • Symptoms following dermal exposure may include irritation, and inhalation exposure may lead to coughing and burn-
    ing sensations in the upper respiratory tract and chest.18 Prolonged exposure may result in dizziness.18 Chlorophenoxy
    compounds such as 2,4-D are quickly absorbed when swallowed, but absorption from dermal or inhalation exposure is

    • Case reports and observational studies provide the majority of information regarding the toxicological effects of 2,4-D
    in incidents involving human poisonings. Researchers compiled the medical cases of 69 people who ingested 2,4-D and
    other chlorophenoxy herbicides; 23 of these patients died.13 Ingestion led to vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and de-
    velopment of hypotension.13 Peripheral neuromuscular effects including muscle twitching, weakness, and loss of tendon
    reflexes have been reported.13 Neuromuscular effects have lasted several weeks to months and have been permanent in
    some cases.13

    •  You need to look at exposures (0+ / 0-)

      before assuming the potential for harm.  The amount of 2,4-D exceeding the renal clearance threshold in humans is more than 13,000 times that found in workers applying 2,4-D--who are the most exposed sub-population.  

      People drinking 2,4-D or other pesticides (as in the last bullet point you cite) would be at risk, depending on the amount ingested, but one cant protect against either suicidal intention or stupidity.

      Democrats give you the Bill of Rights; Republicans sell you a bill of goods!

      by barbwires on Wed Dec 05, 2012 at 11:49:01 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

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