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from master educator Parker Palmer.  This is a follow-on to my diary of late last night, Lessons from a master educator.

from page 10 of The Courage to Teach:  

This book builds on a simple premise:  good teaching cannot be reduced to technique:  good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher. . . in every class I teach, my ability to connect with my students, and to connect them with the subject, depends less on the methods I use than on the degree to which I know and trust my self-hood - and am willing to make it available and vulnerable in the service of learning.

I suspect that few of the self-identified "reformers' in education would agree with those words - certainly the policies they advocate would exclude such an approach.  Yet excluding that approach also excludes most of the teachers who have the most profound effect upon their students, and thereby diminishes their educational experience.

I invite you to keep reading for some more of Palmer's thought, and additional commentary by this teacher.

    Many of us became teachers for reasons of the heart, animated by a passion for some subject and for helping people learn.  But many of us lose heart as the years of teaching go by.  How can we take heart in teaching once more so that we can, as good teachers always do, give heart to our students?
   We lose heart, in part, because teaching is a daily exercise in vulnerability.  I need not reveal personal secrets to feel naked in front of a class.  I need only parse a sentence or work a proof on the board while my students doze off or pass notes.  No matter how technical my subject may be, the things I teach are things I care about - and what I care about helps define my selfhood.
    Unlike many professions, teaching is always done at the dangerous intersection of personal and public life. . . .a good teacher must stand where the personal and public meet. . . . As we try to connect ourselves and our subjects with our students, we make ourselves, as well as our subjects, vulnerable to indifference, judgment, ridicule.
    To reduce our vulnerability, we disconnect from students, from subjects, even from our selves.  We build a wall between inn er truth and outer performance, and we play-act the teacher's part . . . .  We distance ourselves from students and subject to minimize the danger - forgetting that distance makes life more dangerous still by isolating the self.

Thos words from p. 17 are part of an exploration titled "When Teachers Lose Heart."  I would argue that when we do, we cease to be as effective for our students.  If the policies we advocate push us in the direction of losing hear, then we are merely going through the motions, thereby depriving our students of the possibility of real connection with the material, except for those whose passion for the subject is already so strong it can withstand even the burnt-out case play-acting the role of teacher.

Palmer also advocates the notion of a teacher within.  Here are some selected words from p. 31 on the importance of that subject:  

    I realize that the idea of a teacher within strikes some academics as a romantic fantasy, but I cannot fathom why.  If there is no such reality in our lives, centuries of Western discourse about the aims of education become so much lip-flapping.  In classical understanding, education is the attempt to "lead out" from within the self a core of wisdom that has the power to resists falsehood and live in the light of truth, not by external norms but by reasoned and reflective self-determination.  The inward teachers is the living core of our lives that is addressed and evoked by any education worthy of the name.
    Perhaps the idea is unpopular because it compels us to look at two of the most difficult truths about teaching.  The first is that what we teach will never "take" unless it connects with the inward, living core of our students' lives, with our students' inward teachers.  . . .  The second truth is even more daunting:  we can speak to the teacher within our students only when we are on speaking terms with the teacher within ourselves.

Perhaps I can offer an explanation of that last point.  I teach adolescents.  I have taught from grades 7 through 12.  Adolescents have remarkable bullshit detectors.  If a teacher is not being genuine with them, they inevitably will wonder why they should be genuine with the teacher.  If the teacher does not trust them enough to be vulnerable, why should they trust her and take the risk of being wrong, of doing the kinds of exploration necessary to invoke truly deep and meaningful learning.  This applies in every domain - we learn and deepen our understanding by our willingness to take risks, and we will in general only do so in an environment and under the supervision of a person where we have trust that we will not be harmed nor ridiculed nor belittled when we make the inevitable mistakes.  Or better than saying supervised, when we see the person leading us modeling the mind set and the trust that we must have in order to benefit from our learning experience.

We need to respect our students.  As Palmer writes on p. 45:  

Students are marginalized people in our society,  The silence that we face in our classroom is the silence that has always been adopted by people on the margin - people who have reason to fear those in power and have learned that there is safety in not speaking.

 A key part of our tasks as teachers is to provide an environment in which the voices of students are not marginalized.  Sometimes it requires us to wait, to let the painfulness of the silence be overcome by the trust we place that the students will have a voice.  We have to listen to what has not yet been said, as Palmer explains thusly on the following page:  

What does it mean to listen to a voice before it is spoken?  It means making space for the other, being aware of the other, paying attention to the other, honoring the other.  It means not rushing to fill our students' silences with fearful speech of our own and not trying to coerce them into saying the things that we want to hear.  It means entering empathetically into the students' world so that he or she perceives you as someone who has the promise of being able to hear another person's truth

On page 50 Palmer offers a succinct explanation of what all this means:  

Good teaching is an act of hospitality toward the young, and hospitality is always an act that benefits the host even more than the guest.

 As a teacher I understand this to mean that my own worth and self-value comes not from the performance of my students on external measures of learned material, be they provided by testing companies or by me, but rather by how much they grow and our enlivened by the experience we share in the classroom.  I am enriched, and also very much challenged, by that experience.  If each student in a classroom of 30 experiences that growth on some level, I experience the sum of their experiences, which benefits me even more.  

For me it is simple.  Teaching involves relationship.  Healthy relationship involves vulnerability.  Unless I am willing to be vulnerable I cannot expect my students to accept the real challenges of learning, challenges which require vulnerability - the willingness to be wrong is an essential prerequisite to meaningful learning and growth.

I have to honor the truth of their lives, and encourage them to do the same - honoring their own truths.  

If this seems a very different notion of teaching than what is implied by the idea that we would measure teacher "effectiveness" by some measure of student performance on tests, perhaps you begin to understand why so many good and dedicated teachers so strongly oppose much of our current notion of "reform."  We are so concerned with "objective" measurement that we avoid the reality that real learning and real growth is very much a subjective process, depending upon the individual student, who will learn far more and much more deeply when the subject at hand is connected with her reality, his life.

I am a teacher.  That is my proud statement. I am also a life-long student - not merely of the subjects for which I bear official instructional responsibility, but of the many aspects of life.  That makes me vulnerable, because I have to admit upfront and often how little I truly "know" and how much I still must explore.  

I know of no other book that so thoroughly explores what I think the real meaning of teaching is.  The Courage to Teach:  Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life is a profound work, one to which I return on a regular basis, not merely on an occasion like to day, where I will finally encounter its author face to face.  

Whether or not you view yourself as a teacher, all of us have teaching roles - as parents, as supervisors, as coaches.  I think many who do not define themselves as teachers might benefit from reading the book.  If nothing else, it might help some better understand why so many teachers who are regularly singled out by their present and former students as influential feel the way we do about the false and destructive destination of our current educational policy.


Originally posted to teacherken on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 03:13 AM PST.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (23+ / 0-)

    "what the best and wisest parent wants for his child is what we should want for all the children of the community" - John Dewey

    by teacherken on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 03:13:12 AM PST

    •  I am going offline for quite a while (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimpy, TexMex, Bcgntn, JanL

      heading out for coffee and breakfast, then a session called "At Peace With Work" being offered by the wife of a friend, then lunch.  I will probably next visit this diary around 1 PM or thereabouts.

      I do hope a few more people find it.  I am glad that it has spoken to some other than myself, for which I am grateful.

      I apologize for the messed up html with which it was first posted.

      Enjoy your day.

      I will enjoy mine.


      "what the best and wisest parent wants for his child is what we should want for all the children of the community" - John Dewey

      by teacherken on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 04:35:32 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  All of this is true, but only.... (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimpy, JanL, joycemocha, congenitalefty

      for those of us who jumped into teaching with all 4 feet.  The pathetic irony of our political environment is that it:

      1. Politicizes public education.
      1. Keeps transferring responsibility for failure to those who are most instrumental in success.
      1. Has a tiger by the tail; the politicians cannot now say, "Oh.  We were only kidding.  Teachers and their unions are doing a 'heck of a job'."

      Will there emerge a true leader and a leader of truth to solve the demise of public education problem?  Will such a person have the steel to overcome disinformation on a grand, national scale?  How will the right and the left be reconciled such that our children regain some stature in education so they can be competitive with the rest of the world?

      "Have a beginner's mind at all times, for a beginner knows nothing and learns all while a sophisticate knows all and learns nothing." - Suzuki

      by dolfin66 on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 06:02:30 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  very good questions. (3+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        teacherken, JanL, dolfin66

        One comment I heard in ed school was that "The US has one of the most politicized public education systems in the world."  This came from two sources--one a teacher with experience teaching overseas in schools on US military bases; the other a special education researcher looking at international perspectives on learning disabilities.

        I had a hard time wrapping my mind around that concept and I still do (a nonpolitical public education system?  Nah, can't be.).  But looking at the wreck that public education has become in the past seven years of aggressive political meddling in the system, I've got to agree.

        Unfortunately, I think that both right and left are demonizing education at this time for their own purposes, none of which are particularly good.

        •  It goes all the way back.... (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:

          to Reagan's administration when he directed his SecEd. to find a way to eliminate the cabinet position and department.  He couldn't do it.  I've written a diary about this series of regressive events.

          Newt Gingrich's infamous "Contract With America" also called for the disassembling of that and public education.  In their tiny right wing brains, everybody should go to private schools while the public pays for it.  Isn't that their right to stealing?

          I think there are some really, really evil people afoot who want a plutocratic oligarchy, not a Democracy, and they want to be the plutocrats.  George Orwell would be in apoplexy if he saw what we have today.

          "Have a beginner's mind at all times, for a beginner knows nothing and learns all while a sophisticate knows all and learns nothing." - Suzuki

          by dolfin66 on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 09:08:11 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

    •  Passion in pedagogy and with pupils (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      Dearest TeacherKen . . .

      Perhaps, it is the use of the first snippet you offered that leads me to what might be thought too open and vulnerable for some.  Nonetheless, as I finally realized, more than a decade ago, in my read of Emotional Intelligence the vulnerable are the strong.  Thus, I share.

      Parker Palmer speaks of love and passion, for his craft, the subjects he teaches, and the students he cares for and about.  He discusses the relationship between the art and the science of pedagogy, as well as the art and science that exists in any intimate relationship.

      good teaching cannot be reduced to technique:  good teaching comes from the identity and integrity of the teacher.

      I believe the way we interact with another human being, be it professionally, personally, or in a pupil Professor relationship can be real or the opposite, all technique.

      I am reminded of my own rite of passage.  I thought to purposely choose my corporeal journey with someone who was experienced.  However, the thought of a “relationship” per se was of no interest to me.  I did not expect to meet anyone and never sought the company of a “companion.”  I was found.

      The fascination for me is, the particular fellow who came my way craved an authentic connection.  A commitment was what he desired.  He understood that superficial silliness did not appeal to me.  Thus, for hours we read and reviewed books together.  

      Author Herman Hesse spoke to each of us.  We perused each of the Writer’s works.  Our conversations were endless.  Ultimately, we did the “act.” Oddly enough, as practiced this person was, when intertwined physically, he was all technique.  While I am never romantic and love for me is lyrical, when met with a deft doer of the deed, I felt so detached, that the moments felt like hours.  The exercise was rote.

      No matter how technical my subject may be, the things I teach are things I care about - and what I care about helps define my selfhood . . .To reduce our vulnerability, we disconnect from students, from subjects, even from our selves.  We build a wall between inner truth and outer performance, and we play-act the teacher's part . . . .  We distance ourselves from students and subject to minimize the danger - forgetting that distance makes life more dangerous still by isolating the self.

      Apparently, Eric had been seriously hurt in an earlier relationship.  He taught himself to disconnect in hopes of being less vulnerable.  He came to me, eager for an emotional, fulfilling, heartfelt union.  Yet, he also sought to establish distance.  Thus, through isolation Eric placed himself in greater danger.  His heart, had we continued in that manner would be hurt again.  Fortunately, the study we pursued together before the “act” allowed us to feel safe.  Openly, honestly, each vulnerable with the other, we discussed why a technically adept “association” would not work.  While I wanted no romance, fiction is not my friend, if we were to be friends we each needed to be real!

      I hope you can relate to the analogy, or at least understand it.  Smiles.


      It is only the giving that makes us what [who] we are. - Ian Anderson.
      Betsy L. Angert BeThink

      by Bcgntn on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 04:08:41 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  You are one of my favorites (7+ / 0-)

    I always love reading your posts.

  •  Thanks Ken (6+ / 0-)

    As I finish up my master's degree I've been wondering, kinda of in the back of my head, what I think I'm doing as a teacher. I teach in a badly dis-functional school system, which next year will likely be orders of magnitude worse with respect to class sizes, test score requirements, and disciplinary issues - not to mention job security, pension reductions, and all the politics of a new governor who seems to fancy himself some kind of wonder of the world.
    I think I'm going to spend much of the winter deciding how to try to continue to be authentic about my life's work in the kind of crisis-mode we all seem to be facing. Parker Palmer is an inspirational model and I appreciate your diary - reminds me to pick up the book and get reading. ;)
    Enjoy your retreat, sounds good for the soul of a teacher.

    Think what you are doing today. -Fred Rogers

    by JanL on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 03:57:33 AM PST

    •  it is a celebration of 80 years (5+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimpy, Bcgntn, JanL, joycemocha, Dr Teeth

      of Pendle Hill.  Palmer was based here for a number of years.   It is a place of adult education, spiritual growth, exploration, study and more.  My wife grew up about a mile from here, and I used to live about 2 miles away.  It is one of the most important parts of American Quaker culture.

      This is in part a retreat, because I chose to reread that one of Palmer's books.   It is serving as a break in the actual task of teaching, a time for some reflection away from my normal weekend pursuits, which will have to be compressed into a few hours on Sunday evening.

      I thought a few people might find some of Palmer's words and perhaps even my thoughts in response to Palmer's words useful, hence this diary and the one last night.


      "what the best and wisest parent wants for his child is what we should want for all the children of the community" - John Dewey

      by teacherken on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 04:01:48 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  Embrace the Problems (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      I'm not a teacher, but what my career has plenty of ups and downs.  Ultimately it is what I find most interesting, so the problems are just the price paid for getting to do something I am suited to do.

      Ten years for now, things will be better and they will be worse.  Still, the personal challenge of teaching will always be there for you.

      •  The problems in teaching have risen (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:

        above that level of tolerance, Dr. Teeth.  When it gets to the point that your health is suffering from work stress and the problems verge on compromising professional ethics, then it's time to contemplate a change, either in administrative processes or by lower-level choice to opt out.

        Sadly, in education there is a growing toxicity in management.

    •  You are not the only one in this situation. (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      I am contemplating moving out of public education.  Your description could almost be mine--except that I am a special education teacher.

      •  Thank you (0+ / 0-)

        I hold in highest regard the special education teachers in my district - they are doing their jobs on a shoe-string budget, and back-stopping those of us in the "regular" classrooms with ideas and input for helping our students who are not labeled as special needs but requiring lots of extra help, practice, and support.
        I expect I will stay with what I know how to do unless I am fired, furloughed, laid-off, whatever. I enjoy the students far too much to walk away unless forced.
        I also think urban schools have been taking it on the chin for too long, and I am kind of in the mood to fight. ;)
        We all have to do what we think is best for us professionally and personally. I hope you stay if you can find a way to - we are in need of qualified, thoughtful people in all of our classrooms.
        I propose we hang in there.

        Think what you are doing today. -Fred Rogers

        by JanL on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 09:40:37 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  Teaching how to love learning (6+ / 0-)

    is the gift of a life long treasure.

    It's a gift that is only given by example.
    My favorite teachers all had a relish for their subjects that still shines in my dusty memories of being a student.  

    I will always remember the words of an elementary special education student.  He was transferring to another school and stopped by to say good bye.  
    He said, "A part of you is in me."

    A quality relationship is the foundation of transformational  education.

    If cats could blog, they wouldn't.

    by crystal eyes on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 04:04:36 AM PST

    •  I love this. (0+ / 0-)

      Dearest crystal eyes  . . .

      I love this.  I thank you.  Earlier in the day I thought of all the treasures there are in schools . . . the stories, a Teacher's and a Student's . . .  or an Educator's who learns how to best teach from his or her Students.


      It is only the giving that makes us what [who] we are. - Ian Anderson.
      Betsy L. Angert BeThink

      by Bcgntn on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 07:04:13 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Lovely diary! (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    teacherken, chimpy, JanL, princss6

    From my own particular spot on the planet, I have to toss in the Apology, the Republic, and the Politics and Nicomachean Ethics as profound meditations on what it means to teach, to turn souls, to have a good character, to help others develop that character, to play and learn, to develop self-sufficiency and friendships, to see the relationship between the good man and the good citizen and the effects that education has on all of this.

    If we want to live in a just society, we must churn out justice-minded young adults, for they are our society, and they are our source of justice.

    What we presently do is not merely a shameful disservice to others, but is also a shortsighted disservice to ourselves.  We are, that is, both cruel and dumb.

    •  depends on how broad is your definition (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimpy, JanL, joycemocha, Lissa Drake

      of "ourselves" since unfortunately there are those whose idea of others is how they can serve as source of profit or power, not for the greater enrichment of society at large, but for their own personal benefit.

      I would agree with you that what we are doing is robbing our society as a whole.  Unfortunately voices like ours are too often not part of the accepted discourse on education.

      "what the best and wisest parent wants for his child is what we should want for all the children of the community" - John Dewey

      by teacherken on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 04:10:02 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Teaching (8+ / 0-)

    Some of my relatives are or have been teachers. I could never be a teacher. I can teach a person how to do a task. A room full of young people? Nope. There would be lawsuits and restraining orders by the end of the first day!

    My favorite teachers were the ones who knew I was not understanding something, and talked me over or around the bump on my path to an education.

    My very favorite teacher was my second-grade teacher, who realized that a little girl and I were already readers, and packed us off to the school library for the period when the other kids were fighting with Dick and Jane. I was busted when she called on me to read aloud, and I had no idea where the class was because I was reading several pages ahead.

    A love of reading is the key to success in school and life. With the advent of the Internet, a person who likes to read can learn anything.

  •  A lot to think about TK. My best teachers, the (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Bcgntn, JanL, joycemocha, congenitalefty

    ones who are still with me within, made themselves accessible in the moment. I didn't need to know about them personally, they were simply present emotionally and intellectually. A chemistry teacher who helped a disinterested cheerleader to ace his class, a social studies teacher whose passion for civil rights made his class come alive, an english teacher who chose deep passages from literature to touch on subjects of interest to us teens, a biology teacher who used his sense of humor to help us remember tough vocabulary related to his subject, and finally, a physics teacher who helped us rethink what reality was made of. All of them gave us a glimpse into their humanity and a wink that they knew parts of their job were ridiculous.

    We were tracked at this time. I was always with the same group of "smart" kids, the least disruptive among my class. In other classes, forks were thrown, teachers locked in coat closets. This was a nice suburban school by the way.

    "Smart people believe weird things because they are skilled at defending beliefs they arrived at for non-smart reasons."

    by the fan man on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 05:54:14 AM PST

  •  I agree... (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Lissa Drake, Huginn and Muninn

    briefly that teaching is about relationships, where I disagree is with your attempt to paint the "reform" movement of devoid of these relationships as opposed to traditional public schools.

    Having said that, thank you for the diary as I do believe one of the main factors in the level of underachievement among the poor and minorities it that there teachers are UNABLE to form healthy relationships and identify with their charges.

    the most important factor whether students succeed is not their skincolor or their ZIP code or their parents' income - it is the quality of their teacher

    by princss6 on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 05:58:47 AM PST

    •  their* nt (0+ / 0-)

      the most important factor whether students succeed is not their skincolor or their ZIP code or their parents' income - it is the quality of their teacher

      by princss6 on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 06:00:15 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  Don't know if you've read (0+ / 0-)

      Claude Steele's Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect us -- it's a wonderful book that goes in to what he calls "the stereotype effect."

      In brief, when you're in a situation in which your honor or ability or something you care about deeply seems to be on the line, you get physiological anxiety responses (increased heart rate and brain function) that interfere with performance.

      Black students who are "on the line" with a test that is described as able to disclose real ability end up with lower scores than those whose testing situation is described differently.  The simple difference in how a proctor introduces the test alters the scores because it alters the physiological response to the testing situation.

      The same kind of effect shows up with athletic people and an athletic "test" and with women and their concerns.  You put someone's reputation on the line, that someone has physical stress responses that cloud thinking and motor response.

      It doesn't show up with people who don't care about what they are doing, so students who are used to failing and expect to fail and don't care about failing do not show the stress signs regardless of the way the tests are introduced.

      So those students who are most motivated, most nervous about success, and not carefully treated by their teachers end up at a real physiological ceiling on performance.

      He generalizes the point to a wide range of situations in which people's sense of self is threatened by human-made environments -- a workplace that has bicycles all over the place will be off-putting to a non-cyclist, a high-tech signal will put off the non-tech, and so on.

      The quietness with which the signaling happens, and the quietness with which the elevated stress levels work on performance make this issue one that needs to be brought to the forefront.

      The trust relationship between students and teachers can clearly be affected by background choices --where to place things, what colors to use, how to design, what words and tone of voice to use.  I would guess that a lot can be forgiven if human trust is thick, but that requires time, sensitivity, and mutual identification.

      (There is also a really interesting discussion in the book of orgo -- organic chemistry -- which is the gateway course to pre-med life in college.  It's a horrific course, the universe hates it, and everywhere students fuss.  The best strategies for getting through orgo are:  take it at a local college and transfer the credit, work in a study group and share share share, or audit it for a semester or two and then take it for a grade.  It won't, thus, destroy your GPA.  Steele found that confident white students had no problem using these strategies as their reputation wasn't being tested, but that black students who had been drilled by their family to stick it out, go study by themselves, and work work work, ended up in a self-defeating pattern.  They got lower grades in the course and were pushed out of the pre-med rat race.  The more they buckled down and worked, the lower their grades because orgo is simply and universally a nasty experience.

      (The upshot of this is that strategies that can help us get through difficulties might not be adopted by those who need them because of stereotype threats.  We can become our own worst enemies in a way.  Very sobering to think about.)

    •  Relationships are a 2 way street (0+ / 0-)

      And many of the students who do try to take the teachers "hand out" in caring are ridiculed by their peers. Many parents have not modeled healthy adult/child relationships. And statistically speaking, having INVOLVED parents is a huge impact on student achievement.

      Bi-partisanship is a MEANS, not an ENDS.-Barney Frank Feb 2009

      by sd4david on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 10:21:37 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Thank you for the source. I'm putting my toe (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    into the National Boards process, this year, by enrolling in the Take One! program. I'm heading to the library, today, to request The Courage to Teach as a kick-off for this process.  

    Thank you, again, for a thought provoking and insightful diary.

  •  teacherken & Parker Palmer (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    teacherken, Bcgntn, JanL

    Knowing you as I do, teacherken, I think it's safe to say that Parker Palmer has been your own most important teacher.

    I am so glad you are finally getting a chance to meet him.

    "Every good Christian ought to kick Falwell right in the ass." --Barry Goldwater

    by Leaves on the Current on Sat Nov 13, 2010 at 06:53:30 AM PST

  •  Love this book (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    teacherken, JanL, joycemocha

    I also love the last sentence of your diary.  Too much of education policy is guided by what I consider to be false efficiencies, looking for ways to save money and enforce accountability that have nothing to do with what actually makes education work.

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