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A while back Jamess and I were spontaneously wondering (and we can assume others may be, too)


When was it either gutted or compromised?

So, the following is the Crib Note version of Administrators of the EPA from it's inception to date, which includes info on where they came from and where they went after heading  

The Environmental Protection Agency Mission Statement can be reviewed here.

The mission of EPA is to protect human health and the envi

The EPA history can be found here.

I thought it would be fun to rummage through the internet to learn and report about the Chiefs of the EPA since its beginning under Nixon who was radically left of most in Congress today, sadly.

I first wrote this research paper back in 2010.  Oddly, some of the EPA links used no longer work.  Whatever is blockquoted was taken from the link following each block item.

EPA didn't provide information on where the EPA chiefs went after leaving EPA.  I researched, found, and provide that information below.


William Doyle Ruckelshaus served as the first EPA Agency Administrator, from December 1970 to April 1973.  Attorney

In 1975 he relocated with his family to Seattle, Washington, where he served as a senior vice president at the Weyerhaeuser Company from 1976 to 1983.

After completing his second term as EPA Administrator, Ruckelshaus joined the Seattle law firm Perkins Coie (1985-88), then served as

CEO of Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI), Inc. (1988-95) and also Chairman of the Board of BFI from 1988-99.

He has served on the Boards of Directors of
Cummins Engine Co.,
Monsanto Co.,
Nordstrom, Inc.,
Weyerhaeuser Co., Inc.,
Gargoyles, Inc.,
Coinstar, Inc., and
Solutia, Inc.

Princeton/Harvard Law

Russell Errol Train served as the second EPA Agency Administrator, from
September 1973 to January 1977.  Attorney

After leaving EPA he served as President of the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. (WWF-U.S.) from 1978 to 1985, and as its Chairman from 1985 to 1994.

During 1988 he also worked as Co-Chairman of Conservationists for Bush,

1990 to 1992 as Chairman of the National Commission on the Environment.

From 1994 to the present, Train has been Chairman Emeritus of WWF-U.S.

Train has served as Trustee Emeritus for the African Wildlife Foundation which he founded in 1961, and as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, The Washington Institute on Foreign Affairs, and the Atlantic Council.

Princeton/Columbia Law
Train served as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Presidents Nixon and Ford

He had been a founding director of World Wildlife Fund, (along with Julian Huxley,  Peter Scott,  Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, Ira N. Gabrielson, E. M. (Max) Nicholson, Prince Philip: The Duke of Edinburgh), in 1961.

President and Chairman of World Wildlife Fund from 1978 to 1990.

He became Chairman of the Board of Directors of World Wildlife Fund and of The Conservation Foundation in 1985, continuing in that position when the two institutions merged formally as WWF in 1990.


Douglas Costle. Attorney
March, 1977 to January 1/20/81

From December 1969 to December 1970 he was Senior Staff Associate, Environmental and Natural Resources, for the President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization, where he headed the study which recommended the creation of EPA.

In 1971 Costle was a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. From January 1972 to July 1975 he was Deputy Commissioner, then Commissioner, of the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection.  

From March to July 1975 he was also a consultant to EPA on land use policies.

From July 1975 to 1977, he was Assistant Director for Natural Resources and Commerce at the U.S. Congressional Budget Office, and prior to his EPA nomination was on President Carter's transition team for government organization.

Harvard/University of Chicago
Douglas Costle served as ISC's (Institute for Sustainable Communities) chair of the board from 1993 until his retirement in 1999.

Co-founder and Executive Committee chair of the Environmental Testing and Certification Corporation.

Anne McGill Gorsuch,
May, 1981 to March, 1983

Not much info on EPA History site

However, the Washington Post reported her obit in 2004.  Anne died at age 62:

Her 22-month tenure was one of the most controversial of the early Reagan administration.

Ms. Burford cut her agency's budget by 22 percent. She boasted that she reduced the thickness of the book of clean water regulations from six inches to a half-inch.

Republicans and Democrats alike accused Ms. Burford of dismantling her agency rather than directing it to aggressively protect the environment.

the Environmental Protection Agency director who resigned under fire in 1983 during a scandal over mismanagement of a $1.6 billion program to clean up hazardous waste dumps, died of cancer July 18 at Aurora Medical Center in Colorado.

More than half of the federal regulations targeted for an early review by the Reagan administration's regulatory reform team were EPA rules. Virtually all of her subordinates at the EPA came from the ranks of the industries they were charged with overseeing.  

She was elected to the Colorado legislature in 1976 and became known as one of the "House Crazies," conservative lawmakers intent on permanently changing government. She and Gorsuch divorced in 1979.

Ruckelhaus again May, 1983 to January, 1985 (see first Director, EPA, above)

Lee M. Thomas, Psychology, Criminal Justice
February, 1985 to January, 1989

Prior to joining EPA, Thomas served as the Executive Deputy Director and the Associate Director for State and Local Programs and Support of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

Thomas' career also includes serving as Director of the Division of Public Safety Programs for the Governor of South Carolina.
Mr. Thomas joined Georgia-Pacific in 1993 as senior vice president of environmental and government affairs. He has also served as chairman and chief executive officer of Law Companies Environmental Group Inc.

"Mr. Thomas serves on the boards of Airgas Inc., Resolve Inc., Georgia Environmental Facilities Authority, National Merit Scholarship Corp., Rayonier, Inc., Regal Entertainment, Inc., and the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. He is a member of the National Academy of Public Administration.
Mr. Thomas, age 66, has been President and Chief Executive Officer of Rayonier, Inc. since March 2007 and Chairman of the Board since July 2007. Previously, he served as President of Georgia-Pacific Corporation, beginning in September 2002, and as President and Chief Operating Officer, beginning in March 2003, until his retirement in December 2005. Mr. Thomas held these and other senior executive positions within Georgia-Pacific Corporation since 1993. Prior to that, he was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Law Companies Environmental Group Inc.

William K. Reilly, Attorney
February, 1989 to January, 1993

Reilly has held five environment-related positions during the previous two decades, the latest as President of both the World Wildlife Fund--U.S. and the Conservation Foundation.

An Alumnus of Yale University, Reilly holds a law degree from Harvard University and a master's degree in urban planning from Columbia University.

William K. Reilly is a Founding Partner of Aqua International Partners, LP, a private equity fund dedicated to investing in companies engaged in water and renewable energy, and a

Senior Advisor to TPG Capital, LP, an international investment partnership.

Mr. Reilly served as the first Payne Visiting Professor at Stanford University (1993-1994),

Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1989-1993),

President of the World Wildlife Fund (1985-1989),

President of The Conservation Foundation (1973-1989), and

Director of the Rockefeller Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth from (1972-1973).

He was head of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Earth Summit at Rio in 1992.

Mr. Reilly is Chairman Emeritus of the Board of the World Wildlife Fund,

Co-Chair of the National Commission on Energy Policy,

Chair of the Board of the ClimateWorks Foundation,

Chair of the Advisory Board for the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University,

Chair of the Board for the Global Water Challenge

Director of the Packard Foundation and the National Geographic Society.

He also serves on the

Board of Directors of DuPont, ConocoPhillips and Royal Caribbean International.

In 2007, Mr. Reilly was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

He holds a B.A. degree from Yale, J.D. from Harvard and M.S. in Urban Planning from Columbia University.

Carol M. Browner, Attorney (University of Florida)
January, 1993 to January, 2001

The longest ever to serve in this position, the EPA history site has an extensive inclusion of information.

Browner knows environmental regulation both from the Washington and state perspective. From 1991 to 1993, Browner was Secretary of Florida's Department of Environmental Regulation, one of the nation's largest state environmental agencies. She won praise for dealing effectively with difficult issues involving wetland protection, hazardous waste disposal, and Everglades cleanup.

From 1986 to 1988, Browner worked in Washington for then-Senator Lawton Chiles, the late Governor of Florida. She also served as Legislative Director for then-Senator Al Gore.

She also has been guided by another philosophy: the environment and the economy go hand in hand. We can set tough standards to protect the environment and public health - but do so in ways that promote innovation, flexibility, and American competitiveness.

Guided by these principles, Browner has successfully fended off repeated attempts by some in Congress to undermine environmental and public health protections, and has secured funding for the Clinton Administration's new generation of more common-sense, cost-effective, and protective environmental standards.
President Barack Obama's top energy adviser

Browner founded The Albright Group LLC, a global strategy firm led by former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright.

She was also a principal of Albright Capital Management, an investment advisory firm that concentrates on emerging markets.

National Audubon Society board chair

Center for American Progress member of the board of directors,

the Alliance for Climate Protection and the League of Conservation Voters.

She is also on the board of APX*, a company that provides technology infrastructure for environmental and energy markets.

You can learn about Browner's APX here, for instance:

APX, Inc. announced that it has now extended its registry services to include both renewable energy and energy efficiency certificates for voluntary markets. The first voluntary Energy Efficiency Certificates (EECs) registered in the APX North American Renewables Registry(TM) were registered by IBM Corporation.

The EECs were issued to IBM based on an independent audit and verification of permanent reductions conducted by Neuwing Energy Ventures, following the same standards as those used in regulated markets.

Each EEC in the North American Renewables Registry is a unique and traceable commodity that represents a megawatt hour of energy saved.

Christine Todd Whitman, BA degree, Wheaton
January, 2001 to June, 2003

Administrator Whitman believes strongly that economic success and environmental progress must go hand in hand. She has advanced toward these two goals by encouraging a number of public-private partnerships and market-based techniques that deliver real results. Programs such as Climate Leaders, Energy Star, SmartWay Transport, and the new Water Quality Trading Policy encourage - and achieve - voluntary actions from governments, corporations, small businesses, and non-profit groups.

Under Administrator Whitman's leadership, the EPA has also undertaken aggressive efforts to fulfill its mission by cleaning up the Hudson River, protecting children from environmental health hazards such as asthma and sun exposure, and requiring cleaner burning diesel engines and lower-sulfur diesel fuel to reduce emissions from America's dirtiest mobile sources.

50th Governor of New Jersey - the first female ever to hold that position.
During the Nixon administration, Whitman worked in the Office of Economic Opportunity under the leadership of Donald Rumsfeld.
Linda Fisher, EPA deputy administrator. Vice president for regulatory affairs at Monsanto, managing the company’s operations in Washington and running the company’s Political Action Committee (PAC). Worked to blunt opposition to genetically modified organisms.
Resigned because of Cheney's insistence on easing air pollution controls.

She did some good things:

The incoming Bush administration suspended the midnight regulation, but after some months of study, Whitman approved the new 10 ppb arsenic standard and its original effective date of January 2006. [14]

in 2001 the EPA produced a report detailing the expected effects of global warming in each of the states in the United States. The report was dismissed by President Bush who called it the work of "the bureaucracy." [15]

And some not so good things:

Whitman appeared twice in New York City after the September 11 attacks to inform New Yorkers that the toxins released by the attacks posed no threat to their health.
She is now:


director of Texas Instruments Whitman is a director of Texas Instruments and United Technologies. [27]

Whitman is also co-chair of the CASEnergy Coalition, and in 2007, voiced support for a stronger future role of nuclear power in the United States. [28]

Whitman currently has an energy lobbying group called the Whitman Strategy Group which states itself to be "a governmental relations consulting firm specializing in environmental and energy issues."


From July through November, 2003,  LInda Fisher (Monsanto) took Christine's place for a couple of weeks and then replaced by

Marianne L. Horinko, Attorney
July, 2003 to November, 2003.

Assistant Administrator, the second in command at EPA. She reorganized her office and focused on such priorities as Homeland Security and Emergency Response, Recycling and Waste Minimization and Workforce Development. She was instrumental in securing passage of the landmark Brownfields legislation in 2002, which creates jobs through cleanup and redevelopment of formerly contaminated land.

After the events of September 11th, Marianne provided strong leadership at EPA by organizing and managing environmental cleanup activities at Ground Zero in lower Manhattan, the Pentagon and the anthrax contamination at the U.S. Capitol. In 2003, she supervised EPA's response to the Columbia Space Shuttle Disaster. Building on these experiences, she crafted groundbreaking policy at EPA called the National Approach to Response. This innovative policy unified EPA's response activities, breaking down stovepipes to ensure coordination and communication throughout the Agency. Her unique perspective and pioneering approaches to environmental protection helped to create efficient and economical environmental policies and protocols.

She lost the Senate nomination to Hunt.  However,

Marianne Horinko has filed to run in 2011 for Chairman of the Board of Supervisors in Fairfax County.
President, The Horinko Group
Running for Senator, Northern Virginia, 2010

Michael O. Leavitt, Bachelors, Economics (Cedar City, Utah)
November, 2003 to January, 2005

A biography can be found here.

While at EPA, Leavitt signed the Clean Air Diesel Rule, implemented new, more-protective air quality standards for ozone and fine particle pollution and organized a regional collaboration of national significance to clean and protect the Great Lakes.

Odd, because trucks belch black stuff in Utah and Salt Lake Valley has the highest particulate count in the USA.  

Leavitt is currently the Chairman of Leavitt Partners, a private
firm that advises people who invest in health care and food safety.

Michael O. Leavitt, former HHS Secretary Joins HealthEquity Board

Draper, Utah – April 19, 2010 – HealthEquity, Inc., the nation’s first and largest health savings non-bank trustee, announced today that Michael O. Leavitt, former Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) under President George W. Bush and three-term governor of the state of Utah, has joined its Board of Directors. Leavitt is currently the Chairman of Leavitt Partners, a private firm that advises people who invest in health care and food safety.

Stephen L. Johnson, BA Biology, MS Pathology, George Washington University
January, 2005 to January, 2009

As a scientist and 27-year veteran of the Agency, Administrator Johnson brought a strong scientific background and wealth of experience to his role as the nation’s top environmental official and head of the premier environmental agency in the world. Prior to becoming Administrator, he held several senior-level positions, including Acting Administrator, Deputy Administrator, Acting Deputy Administrator, and Assistant Administrator of EPA’s Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances.

Apparently, Mr. Johnson created quite a stir during his tenure:

Lisa P. Jackson, Masters, Chemical Engineering, Princeton
January, 2009 to Present

......she worked for 16 years as an employee of the U.S. EPA, initially at its headquarters in Washington and later at its regional office in New York City.  During that time, she was involved in directing hazardous waste cleanup operations and helping to direct the region’s enforcement division.

A scientist and experienced EPA.  This is an improvement!

We shall see.

I tried to remain unbiased in the presentation.  Probably failed.  


Can you believe Nixon launched the EPA?  While Dick and Rummy, even Rove, were on board?  

Very interesting.

**APX - Who is APX?

APX, Inc. is the leading infrastructure provider for environmental and energy markets in renewable energy and greenhouse gases including renewable energy certificates (RECs), energy efficiency and conservation certificates, carbon offset certificates such as voluntary emissions reductions (VERs), and greenhouse gas emission allowances. With a singular focus on providing trust, transparency, and integrity for environmental markets, the company is the solution of choice for every major renewable energy market in North America and greenhouse gas markets worldwide. APX provides 24/7 support of environmental markets through secure, fully staffed and geographically redundant data centers. Users of these systems include all key market participants including brokers, corporations, generators, NGOs and government organizations. In 2009, more than 1300 companies across the US and internationally will rely on APX for integrity in environmental markets.

APX also provides technology, strategic consulting, and expert operational services to assist wholesale power market participants reduce costs and improve performance in power scheduling, settlement, market operations, system operations support, and demand response programs.

The North American Renewables Registry™

I wonder if this APX & The North American Renewables Registry (NAR) are investment opportunities?  It all sounds very Cap and Trady to me.

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