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Race is a social construction. There is only one race, the human race. But, race has historically been something negotiated by the courts, has legal standing, and has impacted people's life chances across the color line.

As Cheryl Harris and Ian Haney Lopez have detailed, to be "white" is to have a type of property in America. Because "Whiteness" is property it can be inherited, passed down from one person to another as an inheritance, and has value--both symbolic and monetary--under the law, and in the broader society.

European immigrants understood (and continue to understand in the present) the value of Whiteness. In the most stark example, they knew to distance themselves from black folks as a way of become fully "white" and  a "real American."

In addition, the United States government helped to create race and reinforce the value of Whiteness when it passed immigration laws that privileged "desirable" races from Europe over those "less desirable" from Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world.

And of course, the racist implementation of the G.I. Bill and FHA Housing Programs after World War 2 helped to create Whiteness again by creating a segregated place called "suburbia," and creating a stark divide in the racial wealth and income gap that is still with us today.

Race works through a type of "common sense" that is based on individual experiences, cultural norms, (misunderstandings of) history, the law, politics, as well as psychological motivations and decision-making that operate on both a conscious and subconscious level. In total, the race business is a type of magic and pseudo-science. This makes it no less real or important.

Whiteness is synonymous with "American" for those who have socialized into what sociologists such as Joe Feagin have termed "the white racial frame." Here, common sense dictates that "those people" look "American" and those "other people" do not.

The United States Supreme Court summed up this logic in the Thind case (1932) where a South Asian man, a former U.S. Army soldier, was denied citizenship because he was not judged to be "white" by the "common sense" standards of the average white person.

Recent experiments in social psychology have demonstrated how test takers identified an image of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, who is white, as being "American," and an image of Barack Obama, the President of the United States, and a black man, as being a "foreigner."

For the white racial frame Whiteness and "white" people are understood be "normal"; those "other people" are "raced" and are somehow "different."

Because citizenship is about the creation of an "imagined community" some groups and types of people are considered "outsiders."

The color line has racialized this process in the United States: to be white is to be considered de facto part of the country's political community.

History is inconvenient on these matters.

The first great waves of immigrants to the United States were from Africa and not Europe. First Nations peoples were already present in what would later become the United States, when the first white settlers arrived from Europe. The Southwest was already populated when it was claimed under Manifest Destiny after the Mexican American war.

Yet, European immigrants, the majority of who came long after those first arrivals can somehow claim to be more "American?" For race, Whiteness, and white supremacy to cohere with one another necessarily involves those great leaps of faith.

The two suspects in the Boston Bombing (and then manhunt) are white Chechens. While many in the mass public--white conservatives and racial reactionaries especially--will try to suggest they are not really "white" because they are Muslim, Chechens are considered white under the law in the United States, and through the pseudo scientific common sense norms of race.

Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokar Tsarnaev are also proof that racial profiling does not work as an effective law enforcement measure.

I was not alone in my long-held belief that the next "terrorist" attack on the United States would be conducted by White Europeans. I was also not alone in suggesting that it would be a group of white Chechen women such as the suicide bombers known as "The Black Widows" who would conduct a spectacular attack on the United States or her allies.

Why not? If the State and the public have telegraphed their hand by obsessing over "dark-skinned" Arabs that are a caricature out of a bad 1980's action movie, and the media and conservatives are willfully blind to white domestic terrorists in the United States, the preferred tactical choice is a clear one.

As the legendary comedian Paul Mooney has observed, "Whiteness is the complexion for the protection" in the United States. Whiteness will keep white folks safe. Whiteness, as it has long been for people of color, is also a source of terror and fear. However, Whiteness and white skin privilege are not benign. The Boston Marathon Bombing, and the subsequent manhunt and violence, demonstrates this long-standing history reality once again.

On CNN, a man was interviewed about the Boston Marathon Bombing and manhunt. He told the reporter about one of the suspects that, "I thought he was white you know a regular American."

Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokar Tsarnaev are "regular" Americans.

Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokar Tsarnaev are also white.

And Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokar Tsarnaev decided to kill other "regular Americans" who also happened to be white.

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Comment Preferences

  •  The only relevant "otherness" is being a hater. (10+ / 0-)

    Those were two hate filled young men, if they could to that to innocent people, and children.  

    There's too much "otherness" in the world, still.   I grew up in a black neighborhood.  I had no clue that being white gave me a leg up until I was old enough to move around in the outside world a little.   I had to learn what it meant to be white and see myself as something other than just another generic person.  

    Kids today have a much less powerful sense of "tribalism" when it comes to race.   Sadly, the tribalism of political affiliation is filling the vacuum left by departing racial hatred.  Very sad, really.  

    The patellar reflex is a deep tendon reflex which allows one to keep one's balance with little effort or conscious thought.

    by SpamNunn on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:12:55 AM PDT

  •  Mind over matter (3+ / 0-)
    Race is a social construction.
    It sure is strange that some social constructions are more likely to come down with prostate cancer or glaucoma than other social constructions.
    •  I'm not sure (8+ / 0-)

      if you are implying that it is genetic. There is very little evidence that genetic differences between race groups are responsible for the health disparities that are prevalent in the US (and some other countries as well), with a very few specific exceptions such as sickle cell. Otherwise the evidence strongly points to effects of poverty and discrimination (i.e., social constructions) as the reasons for poorer health among African Americans as well as lower income people.

    •  great joke...I think, if not there (10+ / 0-)

      is much much literature and science out there you need to consult. race is a biological fiction. what you are talking about are lose groups of people who share some traits because of in-marriage and geography. human beings are 99 percent or so the same. we have not existed long enough as a species to have sub-races, etc.

      for example, and this is a common example when folks want to talk about this race and genetics business, there are certain groups of "blacks" from tropic environments who are predisposed to Sickle Cell Anemia. Italian Jews share a similar disease profile. Are they the same "race" by your logic? Or is there something else going?

    •  Biologically, there is no such thing as race (7+ / 0-)

      OTOH, certain groups of people * are * pre-disposed to certain illnesses and diseases.

      But that's genetic and not racial in origin.

      •  Maybe not... (3+ / 0-)

        In one of my bird identification books, there's a description: "rufous-sided  towhee, western race." In this case, biology recognizes "race" as a color variation. Two 'kinds' of towhees, each colored slightly differently, same species.

        Technically, race may be a valid scientific biological descriptor for color variations among the same species; "race" as a "social construct" may more accurately refer to a term that has been hijacked by bigots in order to infer that some races are nearly another species in their differences, thus "sub-human."

        More truth-twisting by European expansionists to fit the facts to their preferred narrative.

        Ironically, there is more genetic variation among sub-Saharan African peoples than in all variations of so-called "whites"/Caucasians in the world. Should be, I suppose, what with Africa being the cradle of the human race.

        Right Wing Reader Beware-Science!

        By the measure of genes though, humans are amazingly uniform. Humans are genetically less diverse than chimps, and both chimps and humans are much less diverse than a common species of fruit fly. Given our species' long history of racial conflict, our genetic uniformity may come as a surprise. Not too long ago people in polite company would debate whether different human races really all belonged to one species. Our DNA tells us that our genetic differences don't even come close to matching the variety found within a single, apparently monotonous fruit fly species.

        'Race' though, is a horribly sloppy term. Geneticists prefer to speak about populations, not out of political correctness but because race is extremely imprecise. We've all filled out some form or another asking whether we are Black, White, Hispanic, or 'none of the above.' It's obvious that this is much less informative than knowing whether someone's ancestry is African, Australian Aborigine, European, or East Asian.

        You meet them halfway with love, peace and persuasion, and expect them to rise for the occasion ~ Van Morrison

        by paz3 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:15:32 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Everyone's ancestry is apparently "African" (4+ / 0-)

          beyond that, things are much more clouded.

          Here's a cut and paste job with more:

          Race doesn't matter.

          In fact, it doesn't even exist in humans.

          While that may sound like the idealistic decree of a minister or rabbi, it's actually the conclusion of an evolutionary and population biologist at Washington University.

          Alan R. Templeton, Ph.D., professor of biology in Arts and Sciences, has analyzed DNA from global human populations that reveal the patterns of human evolution over the past one million years. He shows that while there is plenty of genetic variation in humans, most of the variation is individual variation. While between-population variation exists, it is either too small, which is a quantitative variation, or it is not the right type of qualitative variation -- it does not mark historical sublineages of humanity.

          Using the latest molecular biology techniques, Templeton has analyzed millions of genetic sequences found in three distinct types of human DNA and concludes that, in the scientific sense, there is no such thing as race.

          more at this link

          I suspect that the birds you mention equally dispute amongst themselves that they are of different races.  At least the ones from the more progressive states . .. .

        •  I think the (0+ / 0-)

          term "race" needs to  be changed to "variety."

    •  race does not equal genotype. (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      worldlotus, TomP, CuriousBoston, crose
  •  Excellent. One of your best. (7+ / 0-)

    Join us on the Black Kos front porch to review news and views written from a black pov—everyone is welcome.

    by TomP on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:15:58 AM PDT

  •  Willfully blind (9+ / 0-)

    Does nobody remember what our air intervention in Bosnia during the Clinton administration was about? White people, doing ethnic cleansing. Does nobody remember that the people we were protecting in that intervention were Muslims? Really inconvenient, isn't it. And then remember what was going on in the Sudan simultaneously. Oh, but they weren't white.

    And then there's the Homeland Security report that was withdrawn because we can't say that about white people. That needs to be spruced up and released IMMEDIATELY now. Will it be? Of course it won't.

    My head hurts.

    -7.75, -8.10; . . . Columbine, Tuscon, Aurora, Sandy Hook, Boston (h/t Charles Pierce)

    by Dave in Northridge on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:25:06 AM PDT

  •  If you guessed (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    wader, SilentBrook, Cassandra Waites

    that the next U.S. bomber would be Chechen, you are ahead of me and a whole lot of others. I did not see that one coming. Once it happened, I was guessing it was another Eric Robert Rudolph because it seemed most similar to the Atlanta Olympics bombing.

    •  there were reports back in 2006 if not (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      a2nite, Larsstephens, Avila

      earlier on this. Not hard to track down, a few were from major US and European security studies firms and think tanks.

      •  I've had an interest in the Chechnya conflict (2+ / 0-)

        for a while, but I had no idea that any Chechens would want to kill Americans. Russians, yes, but Americans? I didn't see that coming at all.

        Please visit: http://www.jkmediasource.org

        by Noisy Democrat on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:47:00 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  The cause for concern wasn't so much that Chechens (6+ / 0-)

          hated Americans, but rather the acknowledgement that Chechens are a light-skinned population of Muslims that are more resistant to visual profiling than Arabs. So they were viewed as ideal recruits by AQ who could "fly below the radar."  The same could be said for Bosnians and Kosovars, but after UN/US interventions against Serbia it would be much harder to recruit them against the US due to their favorable opinions of Americans.  Chechens on the other hand are a war torn people much easier to radicalize.

          Gentlemen, you can't fight in here! This is the War Room!

          by bigtimecynic on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:26:40 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

      •  So do you think a different kind of profiling, not (0+ / 0-)

        based on race but on religion or ideology, could've helped them identify these guys faster? If you were able to predict that extremists from Chechnya would do something like this, I mean. If we drop the prejudice in favor of white people and recognize that Muslim extremists can come from the Caucasus as well, will that help us identify the bad guys faster?

        Please visit: http://www.jkmediasource.org

        by Noisy Democrat on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:49:43 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Can we create a way of profiling for crazy? (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Noisy Democrat

          Doesn't matter what race or religion, we've suffered more attacks from white Christians than anyone else. What matters is violent extremism. But how, exactly, do you find that? I would suggest with more money for school counselors, community outreach, and neighborhood based police officers, but we all know the GOP won't let that happen.

          "The Democrats are the lesser evil and that has to count for something. Good and evil aren't binary states. All of us are both good and evil. Being less evil is the trajectory of morality." --SC

          by tb92 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:16:45 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

            •  define crazy? sociopathic, most certainly or (1+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              WB Reeves

              they wouldn't be setting bombs for the civilian population to encounter.

              Schizophrenia or another axis 1 disorder, probably not or they couldn't effectively plan an attack.

              iow, no I don't think there is any easy way to screen for "crazy" as it's really impossible to define in a situation like this.....

              One man's freedom fighter is another man's terrorist etc.........

              kinda OT and a wild swag,  but my bet on the beginning of radicalization was Tamerlan being denied the national Golden Gloves Title fight he had earned by winning the regional,  due to his not being a citizen.  One of the people he beat went to the finals instead.....imo that might have been a tipping point and I had barely seen it mentioned at all.  I just remember it as a tidbit from the early hours that stuck in the brain for some reason. Sorry, it just popped in again so I thought I would see what you and others thought.

              Vaya con Dios Don Alejo
              I want to die a slave to principles. Not to men.
              Emiliano Zapata

              by buddabelly on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:01:08 PM PDT

              [ Parent ]

              •  Interesting (2+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                buddabelly, Avila

                I wasn't aware of him being denied the title. In my experience, it's not unusual for just such mundane motivations being the starting point for the descent into extremism.

                Nothing human is alien to me.

                by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:26:05 PM PDT

                [ Parent ]

                •  it hasn't been mentioned much at all, I only (1+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  WB Reeves

                  remember the 1 time myself but like you I went, "Hmmmmm"

                  It often is something like that, being denied something they busted ass to earn that can start radicalizing a person...

                  Plus I found a bunch of early stuff interesting, a man named Tamerlan, also a warrior (boxer, modern version) First denied the Title fight, then denied citizenship, unable to crack the Olympic team, all his life's dreams dashed.

                  I hate having to include that I feel no sympathy for Tamerlan or his brother due to their actions but otherwise it will be misunderstood.

                  I am just curious as to the progression. People don't wake up one morning and say, " Hey, lets go bomb something" there are triggers that let a person through the stages and the more we do figure out, the better the chance of future events being found sooner, preferably before the bombing starts....

                  Vaya con Dios Don Alejo
                  I want to die a slave to principles. Not to men.
                  Emiliano Zapata

                  by buddabelly on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:48:02 PM PDT

                  [ Parent ]

  •  Fantastic diary (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    TomP, SilentBrook, Larsstephens, Avila

    Yes, white privilege is harmful to white people. It weakens us and makes us quite susceptible to exactly what happened in Boston this week.

    Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh to-day as when they first passed through their authors' minds ages ago. - Samuel Smiles

    by moviemeister76 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:32:42 AM PDT

    •  I am always fascinated by a fear of discussing (6+ / 0-)

      it--I would think that given all the violence that Whiteness would be interrogated by white people. Why not?

      •  Oh man... (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Larsstephens, Avila

        ...you would ask something I have been grappling with for a while right when I have a paper due in a couple hours.

        I think it stems from the fact that a lot of white people have had the privilege of being protected from the connotations of how exactly we see the world. After the Civil Rights legislation was passed in the 1960s, a lot of white people like my parents and grandparents just clapped their hands and said, "OK, we're all equal now so let's just forget about all this stuff." Many of them meant well, I think, but ignorance really is a crime sometimes. Some of us are slowly waking up to the realities of our history, thanks primarily to people of color gradually finding pockets in which their voices are heard by white people like myself.

        Actually, I have been pretty amazed by how quickly the dialogue has changed in certain corners, which only saddens me all the more that change is so slow in others.

        Until a majority of white people actually believe that they are a color, too, not just the norm, I do not believe we will see any public discussion of white crime.

        Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh to-day as when they first passed through their authors' minds ages ago. - Samuel Smiles

        by moviemeister76 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:38:42 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  Tipped and rec'ed nt (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    TomP, worldlotus, Avila
  •  John King's comment regarding "dark-skinned..." (6+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    TomP, a2nite, Hushes, SilentBrook, mimi, Avila

    and/or "brown-skinned male" over at CNN. Per my comment here, on Wednesday. I'm pretty surprised this was largely overlooked in the follow-up commentary about the Marathon bombings.

    "I always thought if you worked hard enough and tried hard enough, things would work out. I was wrong." --Katharine Graham

    by bobswern on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:45:04 AM PDT

    •  Should have put quotes around "overlooked." n/t (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      TomP, Avila

      "I always thought if you worked hard enough and tried hard enough, things would work out. I was wrong." --Katharine Graham

      by bobswern on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 10:47:15 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  That's the fear mentioned by chaunceydevega (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      bobswern, Avila

      above. I think he is on the point on that one.

      I remember when King came out with his breathless reporting flowing g out of his mouth like a waterfall and "the dark male or dark man" was hitting the listeners minds repeatedly, all of our producers heard it and realized it, but NONE made a comment about it. When I tried a little "joking remark" to let others know I "heard something in there", everybody just said "yeah, but..." and tried to excuse themselves for being "too busy".

      I am with chaunceydevega here, just that I am not fascinated about that fact, but exhausted mentally over it.

  •  Here's the problem (5+ / 0-)

    The definitions of "white" have shifted mightily over the years, and, no, they haven't included Muslims much, not here in the USA.

    Here, in the very state where the events occured, we have a history of this: read up on Sacco and Vanzetti, two "criminals" who were used as scapegoats because their names ended in vowels. Also look up the Boston history of "No Irish Need Apply".

    So, white privilege only extends to those people whom the community--not law or anything else--have deemed to be "white". Do Irish people look not-white to anybody? Nevertheless, they were treated as such, in my late Irish grandparents' lifetime, right where the bombings happened.

    White does not mean "fair-skinned". It has NEVER meant fair-skinned. It means, fair-skinned people who also belong to the dominant culture/religion/class. White Anglo-Saxon Protestant wasn't made up--and, if you weren't the last two, you weren't the first, either.

    While this has changed somewhat, it certainly has NOT changed for Muslim immigrants.

    "Maybe: it's a vicious little word that could slay me"--Sara Bareilles

    by ChurchofBruce on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:03:45 AM PDT

    •  love that bit of living history memory myth (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Avila

      making about those signs that were anti-Irish.

      there is research in social history and American studies which suggests those signs did not exist. if they did were very rare.

      http://wearerespectablenegroes.blogspot.com/...

      I link to some it there. I am equal opportunity, I call out that Willie Lynch mess too that many black folks are obsessed with.

      Legal standing is a big part of how whiteness and white privilege were protected and established. In my previous piece on this topic I mention a few of those resources.

      •  Wow. What a condescending and incorrect reply. (10+ / 0-)

        Widespread virulent anti-Irish sentiment has irrefutable historical documentation regardless of how poorly it fits into your rather one-dimensional world view.  No number of on-line refutations can eliminate the reality of that documentation.

        Having said that, much of the Irish and Italian hatred was due not ONLY to viewing them as "non white" but also was a result of them being Catholic. So it was more complicated than simply white or not white.  But that dimension of the issue absolutely existed with great prominence.

        Gentlemen, you can't fight in here! This is the War Room!

        by bigtimecynic on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:34:29 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  i didn't say that there was not anti-irish bigotry (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Larsstephens, Avila

          in the u.s. or the uk. not once. what I said was that we have a fascinating case where living memory, i.e. that of signs which apparently did not exist in the U.S. being taken as a fact, and also as prop for the white anti-civil rights ethnic backlash of the 1970s.

          Read some of that work, very fascinating. You will learn something new.

          I am very familiar with the ethnic studies literature on the topic. Again, I was surprised by some of Jensen's research too. Calm down and check it out.

          •  In my Irish Studies class textbook (0+ / 0-)

            there were 2 photographs where versions of that sign were being displayed, both in NYC. Political cartoons from that time pictured Irish as being ragged, barefoot and darker-skinned--"dirty." That's not to say that the depth and length of time during which Irish immigrants were discriminated against was anything close to what blacks went through and continue to experience.

      •  Anti-irish hate (3+ / 0-)

        was just as real as any other hate; it's not a memory myth.

        I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

        by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:40:02 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  see above comment. work on your critical (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Larsstephens, Avila

          thinking and reading skills.

          •  Yep, all of us made the same mistake about (3+ / 0-)

            your point, but it's not you; it's us, obviously, with no thinking or reading skills.

            I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

            by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:57:28 AM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  no, many people respond very instinctively (2+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              Larsstephens, Avila

              and with hostility when cherished myths about white ethnic "oppression" are challenged. go back and read jensen's work and some others also linked to. I would suggest the book Roots Too, and then let's chat. You are making claims in a vacuum.

              •  Referring to other (3+ / 0-)

                racialist authors doesn't prove your point. The Irish had a tough way to go, as did many other groups, and that is not me responding instinctively nor with hostility. You called it a myth, and you are incorrect.

                I have noticed a pattern in your race-centric worldview, and I don't think it's very healthy for you, the people you claim to advocate for, nor society in general.

                I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

                by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:26:13 PM PDT

                [ Parent ]

                •  more silly talk. "racialist authors " (2+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  Larsstephens, Avila

                  who the heck are they? you mean established historians who are respected, have earned bonafides, and are widely read and cited. be serious please and stop trolling.

                  •  Chauncey, (3+ / 0-)

                    There are many pseudo-historians that one can reference to support whatever cockamamy belief one might be trying to push.

                    You lost this one. The irish were oppressed. That's it. It's not a myth and I'm not stupid nor racist for correcting you.  

                    I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

                    by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:41:49 PM PDT

                    [ Parent ]

                    •  okay full tenured pseudo historian at a major (3+ / 0-)
                      Recommended by:
                      awesumtenor, Larsstephens, Avila

                      university? I am not talking about Beck's hack Barton. You are fighting out of your weight class but you keep trying.

                      Again, you have basic reading comprehension issues. No where did I say the Irish did not have a hard time upon their initial arrival in America.

                      You are dishonest and anti-intellectual as you won't even challenge your priors or read an article or book you judge to be "racialist."

                      My time is valuable. You are a troll. Move along. I have wasted too much energy engaging colorblind racists such as yourself and the three or four other characters who show up to haunt the threads when I write here on the Daily Kos.

                      I have decided, as I did with one of your fellow colorblind racists on the earlier post, to ignore you as you are desperate for attention and to deflect and derail what could be productive conversations.

                      Kos does not allow posters to moderate their own comment sections; but I can choose to ignore time wasters such as yourself. be gone; have a nice day.

      •  Can't speak to signs or ads (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        ChurchofBruce, CuriousBoston

        But the anti Irish sentiment (especially Irish Catholic) was alive and well into my parent's generation.

        "No one life is more important than another. No one voice is more valid than another. Each life is a treasure. Each voice deserves to be heard." Patriot Daily News Clearinghouse & Onomastic

        by Catte Nappe on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:42:43 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  not disputing that, just talking about signs (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Larsstephens, Avila

          and also the myths surrounding anti-irish discrimination in the labor market. check out the links. you may find them revelatory.

          •  Still can't speak to signs (3+ / 0-)

            However, (at risk of being labeled "hostile") I'd point out that  in your link one excerpt includes this:

            The business literature, both published and unpublished, never mentions NINA or any policy remotely like it. The newspapers and magazines are silent.
            Which this link would seem to refute in some small way.
            http://yesteryearsnews.wordpress.com/...
            Just two of several examples they give:
            The other day we tossed a scallion to an Irish-owned Employment Agency on 6th Avenue because it posted a sign reading: “No Irish Need Apply.”
            Nevada State Journal (Reno, Nevada) Mar 23, 1932
            In running my eye over your list of local news items April 1st, my attention was particularly attracted by an advertisement for the respectable and responsible position of “maid of all work” with the qualifying (but not obsolete) phrase “no Irish need apply.”
            Titusville Morning Herald (Titusville, Pennsylvania) Apr 2, 1872

            "No one life is more important than another. No one voice is more valid than another. Each life is a treasure. Each voice deserves to be heard." Patriot Daily News Clearinghouse & Onomastic

            by Catte Nappe on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:48:15 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  never hostile :) (3+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              Catte Nappe, Larsstephens, Avila

              good dialogue is appreciated. That is good research. Someone makes a claim/authors and article and then someone else goes out and does more work.

              There is a great book that has been reprinted a number of times called the Ethnic Myth which has some great stuff about the ethnic labor market. Very fascinating and enlightening.

            •  Last time I was at (5+ / 0-)

              the Baseball Hall of Fame--about 8 years ago--there was an exhibit about early 19th century baseball and its growth. They had, as part of the exhibit, an advertisement for tryouts for an amateur team in NYC--and that ad for a baseball team said No Irish Need Apply!

              I mean, Jesus, there's enough out there. The link says that he could only find "one instance" of any NINA ad applying to males--and there was one at the freakin' Baseball Hall of Fame!! Talk about ignoring whatever doesn't meet your thesis...

              "Maybe: it's a vicious little word that could slay me"--Sara Bareilles

              by ChurchofBruce on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 03:32:03 PM PDT

              [ Parent ]

          •  I'd rather use the resources at the Boston Public (0+ / 0-)

            Library, the old, old, old photographs there. The diaries of the people that experienced the "No Irish Need Apply".
            Links that lead to archival material in the BPL. Call or email the reference librarians.

            Might try the JFK library, too. Archives of many early Boston citizens there.

            Mutiple sources, with proven scholarship.

            2012-2016 President Obama, Vice President Biden, Senator Warren. For a LIFETIME, federal judges. Get the filibuster changed. Steamroll. http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/submit-questions-and-comments

            by CuriousBoston on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 05:16:30 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

    •  What about "poor white trash"? (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      heybuddy, crose

      America has a caste system based on social class as well. The proverbial "other side of the tracks". If the class divide in America is strictly racial, then the 99% makes no sense.

      I never liked you and I always will.

      by Ray Blake on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 03:29:39 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  That, too (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        heybuddy, crose

        That's why I made reference to dominant culture/religion/class. Though my examples had more to do with culture/religion, it works for class, too.

        "Maybe: it's a vicious little word that could slay me"--Sara Bareilles

        by ChurchofBruce on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 03:33:21 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Which raises the question, are poor (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          CuriousBoston, ChurchofBruce

          disenfranchised rednecks really white in the sense of privilege? My reservations about identity politics is that it prioritizes race and gender to the exclusion of class consciousness, which the Rich Right (and elements of the Rich Left) just love. The 2008 crash and the Occupy movement did much to put social class back on the radar screen of Democrats, much to our benefit.

          I never liked you and I always will.

          by Ray Blake on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 04:44:28 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  yes; they are (0+ / 0-)

            The wikipedia entry on White Privilege notes it thusly:

            Many analyses of white privilege interpret "whiteness" as an intangible economic good. In his 1935 Black Reconstruction in America, W. E. B. Du Bois first described the "psychological wages" of whiteness:

            It must be remembered that the white group of laborers, while they received a low wage, were compensated in part by a sort of public and psychological wage. They were given public deference and titles of courtesy because they were white. They were admitted freely with all classes of white people to public functions, public parks, and the best schools. The police were drawn from their ranks, and the courts, dependent on their votes, treated them with such leniency as to encourage lawlessness. Their vote selected public officials, and while this had small effect upon the economic situation, it had great effect upon their personal treatment and the deference shown them. White schoolhouses were the best in the community, and conspicuously placed, and they cost anywhere from twice to ten times as much per capita as the colored schools. The newspapers specialized on news that flattered the poor whites and almost utterly ignored the Negro except in crime and ridicule.[10]

            This idea has been applied to racial tension within the organized labor movement, particularly in the United States. In this view, bosses have been able to stratify workers (without paying them more money) by encouraging white workers to consider themselves superior.[31]

            This is also the basis of poor whites being conditioned to continually vote against their own self interest...

            Fear doesn't just breed incomprehension. It also breeds a spiteful, resentful hate of anyone and everyone who is in any way different from you.

            by awesumtenor on Tue Apr 23, 2013 at 01:11:13 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

  •  Say that again: (4+ / 0-)

    race is a social construct.  There is nothing scientific about "race".  Genetically I have more in common with a woman in Shanghai than I do with people in America who share my natural SPF.

    I love the concept that "white" is property.  I never heard it before now and it is dead on.

    The thing about who is a real American and who isn't has really got me thinking of late.  Hearing racists say that blacks should go back to Africa or Latinos should go back to Mexico.  Whoa!  Collectively African Americans are from some of the oldest American families the majority dating back to before 1760 and Latinos have always had a presence here.

    Frankly I am tired of "american" being equated with "white" and if you think about it, it's really "white and christian".  That definition leaves out roughly a third of Americans.  And that's not OK.

    •  And (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      CuriousBoston

      heterosexual sans "perversions"...

      Frankly I am tired of "american" being equated with "white" and if you think about it, it's really "white and christian".

      Fear doesn't just breed incomprehension. It also breeds a spiteful, resentful hate of anyone and everyone who is in any way different from you.

      by awesumtenor on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:14:44 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  As usual, all your writing got me thinking, (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    SilentBrook, worldlotus, Avila

    but this quote especially:

    If the State and the public have telegraphed their hand by obsessing over "dark-skinned" Arabs that are a caricature out of a bad 1980's action movie, and the media and conservatives are willfully blind to white domestic terrorists in the United States, the preferred tactical choice is a clear one.
    Looking at the metaphor, this is a forever losing hand (not even two deuces, at best) that certain people have been bluffing to keep the game going well past lights-out around the table. Alongside still stoking fears by referring to the evil, dark-skinned one, encourage gun-toting "prepperism" for the socialist apocalypse, simultaneously preaching divestment in infrastructure, education, and community development in those areas where non-white populations already outnumber whites, and considering "white" will one day not even be applicable to the majority nationally, the game's bound to end badly (at least with that fear-monger approach). Probably a standoff--all guns pulled and pointed at each other, and for what? Maybe that's what the monied ones want. Long as the game's been going and rigged, the casino "owners" siphon off the profits.

    I discover myself on the verge of a usual mistake. ― Walt Whitman, Song of Myself

    by dannyboy1 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:36:29 AM PDT

  •  I'm reminded of a conversation I had with a (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    SilentBrook, worldlotus, heybuddy, Avila

    Klansman many years ago. I asked what color the people in his life who had betrayed, cheated or abused him had been. He hemmed and hawed a good bit before finally admitting the obvious. White.

    Nothing human is alien to me.

    by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:43:27 AM PDT

  •  One caveat (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    jan4insight, worldlotus, Avila

    It hasn't yet been established that the Tsarnaev's were "recruited" by anyone.

    Nothing human is alien to me.

    by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 11:51:03 AM PDT

  •  Well said. (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    worldlotus

    Boehner Just Wants Wife To Listen, Not Come Up With Alternative Debt-Reduction Ideas

    by dov12348 on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 12:06:23 PM PDT

  •  Disagree (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Be Skeptical

    I would disagree with your assertion or hypothesis that the actions of these two individuals was the result of the White Establishment "letting their guard down" because these two individuals were White and they somehow "blended in". Also, your assertion seems to also suggest that the actions of these two individuals was nothing more than "chickens coming home to roost". That the preoccupation of the White establishment in defining what is good (white) and what is bad (all the others) somehow put these two brothers' actions off the radar - giving them the opportunity to strike.

    You also seem, based on the other pieces I have read from you, to be very preoccupied with race, specifically the simple aspect of color. I recall in an earlier piece that you had written, your cousin or family member had adopted or given birth to a young child who was not of their race. As such you deplored that the child wouldn't be subject to or experience the same stigma or racial stereotyping that his parents had experienced. In effect, that this would re-characterize his/her upbringing and somehow change what societal outlook that child may develop.

    I would posit that if you were to look beyond race and perhaps more towards ethnicity - it might lend greater perspective than simply asserting that the bombing happened because the White elite left the back door open because "they didn't see these two "white guys" coming".  

    •  very postmodern. i don't get how you gleam that (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Larsstephens, Avila, awesumtenor

      from what i wrote. i also do not remember anything about a child and adoption issues. do remind me. i care about social reality and working towards the common good.

      as a working class black man I do not have the luxury of pretending that race does not matter. I also love how folks deeply invested in whiteness and white supremacy would dare to suggest that a black man, or other person of color, is somehow preoccupied with race.

      Very white privilege laced behavior on your part. Liberal racism is one hell of a drug. Seek treatment.

      •  I don't know, (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Be Skeptical

        When Chauncey says:

        "Arabs that are a caricature out of a bad 1980's action movie, and the media and conservatives are willfully blind to white domestic terrorists in the United States, the preferred tactical choice is a clear one."

        Is he suggesting what Philly says he is?

        "the bombing happened because the White elite left the back door open because "they didn't see these two "white guys" coming".  

        Bolding was mine.

        I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

        by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 02:07:29 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  In your article, (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        heybuddy, Be Skeptical

        "The Fear of Black Men". You shared joy with your cousins adoption of a black child out of foster care. Yet you became melancholy on your return home because of the challenges this child will face. Despite the fact that he was adopted into a household of two academics in a middle-class neighborhood. Perhaps the child will not face as many challenges as you did.

        Of course I would posit that we all, on this board, care about social realities and working towards the common good. I would also go a step further and argue that there is not one progressive minority in this country who thinks race doesn't matter.

        As to your assertion that this folk (me) is somehow deeply invested in "whiteness" (not even sure that's a word) and "white supremacy", for the record, I am Mexican. I do not offer, nor can I give any investment into any sort of ruling elite - white or otherwise.

         I'll ignore your third paragraph that is so cheap it doesn't warrant a response - except to say that working for the past 10 years in behavioral health - I think I've pretty much got you diagnosed correctly.

        Finally, my only point was that you/we need to look beyond the simple explanation of race as a factor as to why these two "whites" somehow slipped past thousands of spectators to drop two bags unnoticed. Surely if they were black or brown - someone would have pulled a gun on them, right? Absurd.

        •  you can be hispanic and invested in whiteness (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Larsstephens, Avila

          we see that all the time with black conservatives and of course folks like george zimmerman. hispanic is a cultural/ethnic marker and not a racial one.

          please provide a link to where i said that about ir adoption. i could care less; my concern has been that kids have safe homes; i do have a concern about how mixed race kids where the parent who is of color (especially for white moms) may very well have identity issues. there is research by psychologists and others which can attest to that fact.

          i don't recall writing something with that title--was it a trigger or something for you?

          Whiteness is a very real word. The dictionary, amazon.com, and assorted other online resources are your friend there.

          "Surely if they were black or brown - someone would have pulled a gun on them, right? Absurd."

          Who made that claim? Don't be so reductionist and simple minded. Also, do not deny the power of racial profiling and "Arabphobia" in the U.S. and elsewhere.

          The empirical data and history are most certainly not on your side here.

          "I think I've pretty much got you diagnosed correctly."

          Mighty "white" of you. I hope you have better clinical skills than that. I can diagnose you as a member of the colored class who enables white supremacy. Fanon would not be surprised. Surrender is a common coping mechanism.

          •  lol you know, I laughed at the end of this.... (2+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            heybuddy, Be Skeptical

            You are one of the kinds of people I went to school with at Cal who were so smart, intelligent and who were destined for greatness in the world - but for the huge chip on their shoulder. At the obsession with their own specific relation to people of the same race, whites, Latinos, Asians. In a sense, they could never identify, sympathize, empathize with any movement except to figure out their own identity. For which I don't think you find any comfort.

            I am being reductionist because that is the implication you are making. That had they been black, latino or perhaps "more Muslim looking" (whatever that would mean), that they would have been more easily identified or even stopped. That is the exact implication you are making. There is no evidence to support that.

            And in re-reading your 9th paragraph - I love how you have dissected how I am enabling white supremacy. My clinical skills are first rate and are spot on given this paragraph.

            See, I can only assume that the latent hostility you feel to White people, whiteness or other "coloreds" enabling white strategic power, was somehow caused by something traumatic in your early childhood or formative years - an arrest, divorce, death. At the college level, these impulses are manifested in such organizations which promote the type of divisiveness you describe. The embrace and promotion of multi-culturalism. Of course it would have to be that - and why not? Multi-culturalism supposes the dominance of one race or way of life. And its that dominance that spurs you on. Yet you don't really look for a solution as much as you decry it and other coloreds for perpetrating its existence. In that way, you really aren't looking towards pluralism. Pretty sad.

            And I am mistaken. It was not you that wrote the article. My apologies.

            •  if you cannot get the basics of referencing (2+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              Larsstephens, Avila

              a piece here on the Daily Kos correct, your other skills are very much in doubt. you are good fun though. keep on pretending with your "clinical skills" and diagnoses online. what you describe are more the projections of a racist onto the Other than anything else. that is the joke no? As I said, Fanon would have fun with you a great deal.

              have fun with your trolling. as I said to others, I am not interested in wasting time feeding trolls online.

              your last paragraph is rich with the white right/white supremacist talking points we have seen as of late. the strategic cyber racism campaign of the white nationalists and their allies in the digital age has been exposed. i for one am not playing anymore. deflection? distraction? and derailing are the MO of the white right online.

              no stories in your profile? that is a dead give away.

              white victimology and the white racial frame are one hell of a drug again.

              •  Ah yes... (1+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                Be Skeptical

                The old trick of catching one mistake and then running with it. And since you pretty much ignored my last paragraph, I can only assume that an unresolved trauma did occur for which you are plowing into literature to try and solve. Kudos to you I suppose - its a never-ending journey trying to find oneself.

                White right/white supremacist
                strategic cyber racism campaign
                white nationalists and their allies
                white victimology
                white racial frame
                the white right online.

                I think this list says alot about your mindset.

                We've pretty much run the course here but I will say that not everyone (including minorities) is part - either consciously or subconsciously - of the so called White ruling establishment. Nor should you lump people who do not ascribe to your philosophies on race, self, multi-culturalism or social construct - into the White establishment or even perpetuating its rule.

                I don't have a profile. And? Is that mandatory? Anyway, good luck.

                •  I think this list says alot about your mindset. (0+ / 0-)

                  Ha. yes, that I am pretty well read in the literature on race and social inequality in the U.S. and elsewhere.

                  More projection: "Kudos to you I suppose - its a never-ending journey trying to find oneself."

                  Yes, you are. A person of color who has a healthy sense of self-worth and identity and who has the critical tools to discuss race, confront white privilege and white supremacy, and speaking articulately about it, is a threat to many people.

                  You are a troll who is pretending to be some type of clinician when in fact you running some type of cyber racism con game. Very time consuming. Why spend your energy that way? I know that you are a white victimologist; but are you receiving some type of psychic wage from playing this game?

                  •  Nope. (0+ / 0-)

                    I'm just a simple guy that doesn't see race as you do. I mean, its pretty clear that you're the troll that pretty much shouts down anyone that may disagree with YOUR idea of race and your dreaded list of.......

                    White right/white supremacist
                    strategic cyber racism campaign
                    white nationalists and their allies
                    white victimology
                    white racial frame
                    the white right online.

                    And so you quote/cite Franz Fanon and other authors as if they were even relevant in today's academia - particularly in the US.

                    Do you actually have the critical tools to discuss race, confront white privilege and white supremacy? I think what you have discussed so far is relevant only to your theories of race. As such, you and your ideas are really a threat to no one.

                    It would be best if you were to get outside the library (or cafe), take your nose out of those books, and bring your energies to working towards identifying practical solutions for solving wage inequality; or reducing disparities in health care; or towards reducing incidences of HIV in Afro-Am MSM populations.

                    Certainly working in a county mental health system has its drawbacks - but I'm trying to do my part by working on practical solutions, not theory.

                    And I have all the time in the world in having a healthy debate on every article you write henceforth. :)

            •  If Chauncey couldn't nurse his obsession with race (0+ / 0-)

              he would dissolve into a pool of tepid tea.

    •  Their ability (0+ / 0-)

      to "blend in" is what gave them the ability to carry out the attack in the first place; they were banking on it. Look at the security video; they walk through the crowd without suspicion; they are not given a second glance by anyone.

      Given the extremely heightened police presence that comes with the running of the Boston Marathon as well as all of the spectators and the general festival atmosphere that surrounds Patriots Day in Boston... do you really think that anyone with dark skin and malicious intent would have been able to leave a backpack containing  an explosive device without being noticed?

      Fear doesn't just breed incomprehension. It also breeds a spiteful, resentful hate of anyone and everyone who is in any way different from you.

      by awesumtenor on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:22:11 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Well, to be frank (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Be Skeptical

        I'm not certain that a black person would have drawn the same degree of attention as someone perceived as "looking" Arab or Middle Eastern. It depends to a degree on whether a black presence is considered "normal" at a particular event. I live in Atlanta so perceptions at public events might differ significantly from what is considered "normal" in Boston.

        Nothing human is alien to me.

        by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 01:47:51 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Nobody could have stopped these bombers. (0+ / 0-)

          Whatever they looked like.  

          I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

          by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 03:53:02 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  Nobody? (0+ / 0-)

            That's a bit sweeping. If someone had noticed them leaving the backpacks and gotten suspicious, maybe. I don't think that's really the point of the discussion though.

            Nothing human is alien to me.

            by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 05:56:24 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  I only mean I heard they dropped (1+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              WB Reeves

              the bags and the explosions followed very shortly after. If that's true, then I think it's just one of those things that there is no way to defend against. There just isn't enough time.

              I'm afraid that my signature won't match the mood of my comment.

              by heybuddy on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 06:04:41 PM PDT

              [ Parent ]

        •  Black men (0+ / 0-)

          may not have  drawn attention for the same reason someone perceived as Middle Eastern... but it is arguable that they would be more immediately viewed with suspicion  by more people...because that is how people have been conditioned to respond to black men going back centuries...

          Fear doesn't just breed incomprehension. It also breeds a spiteful, resentful hate of anyone and everyone who is in any way different from you.

          by awesumtenor on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 06:30:49 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  In all public gatherings? (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            Be Skeptical

            An MLK Day celebration or an Atlanta Hawks game for example? That something is generally true doesn't make it so in every particular circumstance.

            Nothing human is alien to me.

            by WB Reeves on Mon Apr 22, 2013 at 07:56:03 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

            •  as you know non violent black marchers (3+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              Larsstephens, Avila, WB Reeves

              with King where shot at, beaten, arrested, and had acid thrown on them. the black body holds a special place in the white racial imagination of the United States. never mind the literal immolation, destruction, and breaking apart of the black body in the spectacular lynching ritual.

              and of course, how subconscious racism and implicit bias primes white people in psychological tests to see black men holding harmless objects as having them magically transformed into guns, knives, and other weapons.

              or Rodney King, a man subdued, outnumbered, and damn near beaten to death could be imagined by white audiences and the white public as being some type of "threat." the great book Reading Rodney King has some great essays on race and representation as seen in that example of police brutality.

              this is a society sick with racism.

              there is another irony there--why would an Atlanta Hawks game be a space where the black body would be seen as "threatening?" this may not be your point, but it signals to how the black body is perceived as a threat until it is shown to not be. funny, the vast majority of hate crimes and racial violence in the U.S. have historically and in the present been committed by whites against people of color.

              •  I think you missed my point entirely (1+ / 0-)
                Recommended by:
                Be Skeptical

                There are social context in which the presence of black folks would not be seen as suspicious or threatening simply because their presence would be entirely expected. This doesn't invalidate the general observation that our culture is awash in the stereotype of the threatening black male.

                For example, if one were subject to a pavlovian fear of black men, one wouldn't likely attend an Atlanta Hawks game, since you would expect to be surrounded by black men. Likewise, if one were attending an MLK Day celebration one would hardly be suspicious of the presence of a large number of black men.

                My only point was that there are instances where blackness isn't the main marker for racist attitudes. When people rant delusionally about dangerous foreign immigrants they are not evoking the image of blackness. When the subject is "Arab" or "Islamic" terrorism, they are not evoking the image of blackness. These are exceptional instances but they are no less true for being exceptional.

                Again, the existence of such exceptions doesn't invalidate the premise that our society is characterized by "negrophobia". It does indicate that white supremacy isn't entirely defined by that phobia.  

                Nothing human is alien to me.

                by WB Reeves on Tue Apr 23, 2013 at 01:42:33 AM PDT

                [ Parent ]

                •  I submit (1+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  WB Reeves

                  that Patriots Day in Downtown Boston is not such a social context...

                  Fear doesn't just breed incomprehension. It also breeds a spiteful, resentful hate of anyone and everyone who is in any way different from you.

                  by awesumtenor on Tue Apr 23, 2013 at 07:56:16 AM PDT

                  [ Parent ]

                  •  That I wouldn't know (0+ / 0-)

                    Though I've visited Boston, I've never attended the marathon or been there on Patriots Day, so I've no direct knowledge of the degree of participation or non-participation by Black folks in either event. Perhaps you possess such direct knowledge. In which case I would defer to your greater expertise.

                    Nothing human is alien to me.

                    by WB Reeves on Tue Apr 23, 2013 at 08:42:22 AM PDT

                    [ Parent ]

      •  Let me get this straight.... (0+ / 0-)

        Are you suggesting that if the person was black or latino, he would not have been able to leave a backpack unnoticed? Also, how does a bystander "see" malicious intent?

        •  that is the point (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Larsstephens, Avila

          we know alot about racial profiling and how people process "neutral" intent. as someone who has been profiled as "arab" by TSA and Homeland Security and also followed around department stores because I was--shock--dressed just like the other folks there who were white, the observation that race matters here is spot on.

          we also have some great data about shoplifting at department stores for example which points out how white men--the largest group of pro shoplifters--are able to get away with it because they are not seen de facto as "suspicious." store security is chasing around black and brown folks when they should be focused on their own employees, white men, and middle age to elderly white women.

          the new yorker had a great piece on that a few years ago.

  •  chaunceydevega , this: (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Avila
    The two suspects in the Boston Bombing (and then manhunt) are white Chechens.
    Perhaps it is just because of my own unique experiences that I feel discomfort/conflict with this sentence within the confines of the overall topic.  The sentence sorta leapt out at me & although I have not had the chance to process it fully, here is why:

    I was raised by a blond haired, blue eyed DAR mother & brown haired, brown eyed "All American" father.  Both were fair skinned & had common "American" surnames.

    Through sheer accident of my gene arrangement, when place between the two, I resembled my father in hair/eye coloring & my mother in skin paleness & body size.

    Raised in white privilege world community which automatically identified me as white-because of my parents, my name & physical appearance.

    That is until someone discovered my place of birth.

    Did not matter where I was in the world, whether it was known that I was adopted, that I spoke (perfect) English with a southern drawl-as soon as my place of birth was discovered I instantly became an other.

    It was sometimes difficult as a child but became increasingly surreal as an adult.

    I realize this is a personal antecedent, yet after experiencing this phenomena for nearly 6 decades, I cannot help but think that "racism" or "otherness" is not just confined to appearance, skin color & known ethnicity.

    Thank you for yet another thought provoking & educational article.

  •  The only thing that caught me by surprise (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Avila

    in your diary is:

    the racist implementation of the G.I. Bill and FHA Housing Programs after World War 2 helped to create Whiteness again by creating a segregated place called "suburbia," and creating a stark divide in the racial wealth and income gap that is still with us today.
    I never thought about the GI bill to be a racist implementation. Weren't black soldiers receiving a GI bill after the service in WWII? Or were they denied those benefits? Or is it just because there were less black black compared to white soldiers actively serving  during WWII?

    I understand that it may have increased the divide in wealth between black and whites, but thought that wouldn't have been intentionally and more an unintended consequence, so I question the wording "racist implementation" because that would mean it was intentional. On the other hand I don't know how the GI bill worked back then.

    De facto I do see that many programs and laws like affirmative action and the notion that the US military service is the least discriminatory and the most equalizing "employer" of the US  (it was presented like it to me by many Americans including many Afro-Americans), don't work that way, but ... I would say for other reasons.

    •  they were explicitly racially discriminatory (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      mimi, Larsstephens, Avila

      in practice and implementation both because of redlining, restrictive covenants, quotas against non-whites attending university and college, etc. etc. etc.

      Katznelson's last book When Affirmative Action was White does great work explaining this. Also, this excerpt from the documentary race the power of illusion is excellent in putting a human face on the narrative:

      http://www.youtube.com/...

      This is a classic example of structural white supremacy in practice aided and abetted on a quotidian basis by regular white folks and others.

      •  oh, thank you, I will dig into this book and (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Avila

        the documentary. I a sure I will learn a lot and get new insights I was not aware of. Thanks again.

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