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Fracking, like cigarette production, is one of the moral indicators of Capitalism-as-practiced. A lot of money is spent by the companies involved proving that it causes no harm and is in fact a common good. It also provides a good case study in how the fight against corporate/ governmental hegemony can be a long drawn out process punctuated by the occasional surprising success. If the city of Dallas, the home of Big Oil, effectively bans fracking, that says a lot.

J.R. Ewing standing in front of Southfork with the phrase,
However, fracking is a complicated subject. The points made for it by its apologists include economic development, the prospect of having a smaller carbon footprint than with coal fired energy generation, and cheaper gas for those who are vulnerable to high heating costs. Proponents say that fracking is a proven technology used for many years, has never been proved to have a negative effect on environmental degradation, and has never caused earthquakes, which is true…if you define fracking narrowly as sending an explosive charge down a borehole to loosen the formation from which the oil is extracted, and discount the storage and transport of waste, the fugitive emissions from extraction and storage, and earthquakes caused by injection disposal wells.

Fracking is also bound up in our ideas of individual versus collective rights, class warfare, corporate/ governmental collusion, and climate change, something we on the Left are passionate about, and rightly so. On the Right it is likewise associated with decreasing reliance on foreign gas and oil imports, national economic progress, and providing jobs. Because the media promotes controversy, everything from the visual images of protesters to the letters written to local papers are often chosen to be polarising. The most extreme examples of corporate sponsored puff pieces are often balanced with impassioned but uneducated letters and e-mails, so that readers unfamiliar with the process become confused. One friend of mine asked, “How can anyone possibly think that injecting a highly pressurised column of carcinogenic chemicals into a pipe through the water supply could be a good idea?” Another made equally valid points from his point of view: “If you all say that nuclear power is off the table, renewables can’t generate enough power, biofuels take up too much productive land, and coal and petroleum has to stay in the ground, how are you going to heat your houses and cook your food?”

If, like me, you tend to agree with the first person, winning the battle against fracking means addressing the second, all the while unpicking the lies and partial truths the extraction industry promotes with the collusion of the media. It also means using whatever means are most effective for the task at hand, direct action, legal means, scientific analysis, and educating the people around you in terms that they understand and are willing to internalise so that they repeat them to others. Nothing makes me happier than having the woman getting a haircut in the chair next to mine tell the beautician that fracking is essentially a ponzi scheme, an issue I had made sure to point out, with a helpful link to the business pages of the NYT, in a thread following a pro-fracking article in The Telegraph the week before. If the industry feels it necessary to hire psy ops expertsinternal documents show that they are not so sure of their support. While Chevron is actively supporting fracking, other oil companies are reconsidering their holdings, at least partially because they believe that local resistance is strengthening. Local resistance works, so how to go about it?

The gas industry and the governments of most Western countries, France excluded, state that fracking is an inevitable part of progress. Considering that the majority of governments are conservative neoliberals or at least enable them, this might seem so, but their own internal documents show that they are not so sure of their support. While Chevron is actively supporting fracking, other oil companies are reconsidering their holdings, at least partially because they believe that local resistance is strengthening. Local resistance works, so how to go about it?

A elderly Romanian sits in a field ignoring a line of armed Romanian police. Text says,
Individual Action:

The best known examples of this are Josh Fox’s Gasland documentaries. The movies are a quick and spectacular introduction for those who might not read a lot. I rented the first and then loaned it around the neighbourhood to people I thought might be receptive. While his movies involved both resources and technical skill that may not be available to most amateurs, other forums such as Youtube are accessible to anyone with a video camera or a cell phone, and some patience. A Pennsylvania activist I know recorded the heavy traffic passing by his house during fracking operations. His video has been very effective in convincing those who may not be swayed by the greater ramifications of fossil fuel use, that the impact on daily life can be quite severe. It has also been very effective as witnessed by attempts by the gas industry to persuade him to stop posting links to it.

Sharon Wilson poses as the iconic heroic female WWII worker in headscarf and dungarees, on the cover of Fort Worth Weekly.

Our own TxSharon is another model. She has written many fracking diaries on Kos since 2007, and later started a web site of her own, as well as being a dedicated activist on the ground.  She provides an excellent overview of the field, full of links, good advice, and a handy news aggregator. Her blog was an invaluable resource I sent to local groups in England when fracking was first proposed here, and I have seen her articles and links to her blog posted on Frack Off UK and other groups ever since. I also follow her on Facebook and Twitter. Her work is a full time effort though, and most of us don’t have either the time or the energy to replicate it. Therefore, it is essential to support her, and others who provide similar reference links in any way possible. Donate if it's appropriate, and more importantly, share stories, diaries, and links in other forums and in social media.

Collective Direct Action:

This works best when it is a local initiative, but often outsiders are involved in crucial stages. In Balcombe, environmental groups and local residents did not prevent Caudrilla from drilling an exploratory well, but they slowed down the process considerably, prevented further development, and generated a lot of publicity. The media often tried to portray the protests as a carnivalesque gathering, but locals had generated a survey showing the vast majority of residents were against development in the area. The same kind protests presently continue in Barton Moss

A large number of local people and activists posing for a photograph with anti-fracking signs

In Canada, the First Nations have been particularly active. Three Native American women and one of European extraction began a protest called Idle No More, working against the loss of native control of what land remains to them. From Alberta to New Brunswick, protests have slowed the advance of the fracking trucks, garnered international sympathy, highlighted the loss of their right to live in peace, and by extension how fragile all of our rights are when profits are at stake.

Iconic image of a lone Miqmak woman kneeling and holding an eagle feather aloft in front of a line of RCMP police in riot gear
Legal and Environmental Obstacles:

These will vary by locality and have to be researched accordingly. In the UK, Greenpeace has coordinated an initiative through a website called Wrongmove (a play on the popular property buying site called Rightmove) where you can research whether your area is slated for development and register to refuse access to any drilling under your land.  Where this is not possible, baseline environmental quality assessments should be done and then compared to measurements taken during and after the fracking process when problems arise. Unless that baseline is documented, the offending company will never take responsibility, claiming that any radioactivity or chemical contamination was previously extant. You can also detect methane emissions from wells, tanks, and compressors with FLIR, something that TxSharon uses often for documentation when complaining to TCEQ. Legal barriers can effectively make drilling unprofitable by holding companies to environmental standards and serving as a focus for local activism.


This is done on two levels, one international and one very local. It is heartening to know that everywhere from Pungesti, Romania to Pennsylvania, people are working with you.  When they encounter a setback, you can encourage them, and when they win a battle, you can share in their celebrations. In either case you learn what works and what doesn’t. Frack Off UK and their Facebook and Twitter feeds are the ones I use the most as they have the most up to date news and links, and are the best places to pass on information. For example: Marek Kryda, a Polish anti-fracking activist, posted a picture on Facebook of a Ukrainian woman holding up a mirror to reflect the policeman blocking her way. This was not an anti-fracking protester, but showed an innovative way to use non-violent means to get a point across to someone who might not be reached any other way.

An elderly Ukrainian woman marches with a mirror which reflects the policeman in front of her.

On a local level, connecting with others is essential, especially when you find that local property is being assessed for possible exploration. There is a very narrow window of opportunity to generate resistance, but by getting information out as rapidly as possible, and tailoring the message to your audience, you have a greater chance of stopping fracking before it starts. Your local businessmen won’t be impressed by global warming arguments when there is 3” of ice on the ground, but they might be swayed by examples of oil companies sticking locals with the bills for cleanup when they abandon a drill site. Planners may not care about the harm to local wildlife, but they may not like forking out for road repairs on a regular basis. The greater the number of local people who are involved means that your group will be more likely to have a variety of people who have legal, scientific, or industry expertise who can help to do this.

Indirect persuasion:

For every argument for fracking, there is an equally valid one against it. Use them; once again tailoring your argument to the audience. One of the first thing learned in grant writing seminars is to use the language and style of the people you are trying to persuade. In a way, we are lucky in the UK because our national newspapers have known biases, so adopting the tone of an outraged Tory blustering about property rights and value loss or lack of business acumen in the Telegraph, or citing scary stories about exploding tap water in the Daily Mail, is fairly easy. Countering arguments from the Left is somewhat harder. The Dash for Gas in this country has happened in an environment of escalating price rises, which have beggared many vulnerable people: the poor, the elderly, and the disabled. Our working class has been at risk for many years, and some of the most deprived areas are sitting on top of potential gas fields. When people are desperate, they are more likely to take risks, as happened in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. However there are counterarguments to be made to these points as well.

Protesters from local Unite union marching in Barton Moss

Unlike the U.S., the UK gas market is tied in with the rest of Europe so our gas prices will only be lowered when the energy companies are unable to rake off the huge, well documented profits they have been making. As to local employment prospects, most of the highly paid jobs go to outsiders with technical expertise. The mid level jobs likewise require experience; so local jobs are likely to be in transporting hazardous chemicals and water. These jobs are temporary, and after they are gone, the only thing left are the hazardous chemicals and lack of water. Conservation measures such as insulation and replacing windows is more likely to provide a steady income stream over a longer period.

The final argument, and the hardest to counter is: “If not fracking, what else can be done to provide needed energy?” This is more difficult. The best answer is once again conservation. Recently I have become interested in passivhauses. These dwellings are built with very thick walls and sealed double or triple pane windows. Air to air heat exchangers remove all the energy put out by cooking, water heaters, and even the 98.6 degrees that humans emit. Unlike the sealed homes of the 1970s and 80s, there is a constant stream of incoming fresh air so Radon and mould are actually less of a problem than in a standard house. Supposedly a really well built passivhaus requires almost no additional heating. Building one of these from scratch is probably beyond our means, but a lot of the ideas can be incorporated in existing housing. It is certainly worth investigating if your national or local authority have grants to help with additional insulation. Some authorities and trusts will come to your home with a thermal imager to show you where the greatest heat loss occurs.

Some energy production will still be necessary, so critical and unbiased discourse on how this will be done in a national context should be undertaken (if that is possible!). I theoretically have no problem with nuclear, but as it is practiced currently, it is both dangerous and expensive. This could be overcome with dedicated national initiatives similar to space programs, but no country has stepped forward to undertake that kind of research and development. Wind is intermittent, and resistance to windmills is often pronounced. I once asked someone in the renewable energy industry why some people atavistically hated windmills. He said that movement and noise disorients some people, but more importantly they represent obvious outside control. Solar seems to be the best positioned of the alternatives at present. Solar PV panels have come down in price enough that Ikea carries them. Solar has worked quite well in Germany, a country not known for its bright sunny weather. In my own area, numerous houses have PV panels and there are even some gigantic fields of them in the countryside, so they must generate some profit for the landowners. National smart grids to spread generative capabilities of wind and solar are the most important next step, and candidates for office should be questioned to see where they stand on restructuring the grid for dispersed power generation.

Unfortunately, the biggest obstacle to preventing extreme energy extraction of any sort is our respective governments. Our prime minister allegedly e-mailed one of his flunkies that the Tories needed to cut out the “green crap”, and he certainly has done away with the green levy on our fuel bills earmarked for alternative energy. Obama has danced around the problem, but his lukewarm support is still preferable to the regressive policies in Australia and Canada. In the end the fight against fracking comes down to disrupting the takeover of our governments by the predatory sociopaths who run our corporations. Nonetheless, we can do our best in the meantime to make the energy companies work for every cubic foot of natural gas they extract.

Poster using the upheld feather with an eagle in the background done in the style of the northwest first nations wood carvings with the title,

Originally posted to Anti-Capitalist Meetup on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:00 PM PST.

Also republished by Hellraisers Journal, In Support of Labor and Unions, and Global Expats.

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (17+ / 0-)

    "The 'Middle' is a crowded place - that is where the effective power is - the extreme right and left might annoy governments, but the middle terrifies them." Johnny Linehan

    by northsylvania on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:00:16 PM PST

  •  Tonight's ACM has been reposted to: (10+ / 0-)

    The Stars Hollow Gazette:

    Wild Wild Left:


    FDL (sans links for some reason):

    "Hegel noticed somewhere that all great world history facts and people so to speak twice occur. He forgot to add: the one time as tragedy, the other time as farce" Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte .

    by NY brit expat on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:11:30 PM PST

  •  Great piece of writing, northsylvania! (11+ / 0-)


    how fragile all of our rights are when profits are at stake.

    God spare me the Heart to fight them... I'll fight the Pirates forever. -Mother Jones

    by JayRaye on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:12:16 PM PST

    •  And to that I would add: (12+ / 0-)
      How fragile all of our lives are
                when their profits are stake.

      God spare me the Heart to fight them... I'll fight the Pirates forever. -Mother Jones

      by JayRaye on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:14:29 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  This is why (9+ / 0-)

        your own diaries on labour history are telling. All of us are in a constant fight to retain both human dignity and our right to live without fear for our physical health and mental stability. I was originally going to write the diary in terms of human rights but found that, on the ground where fracking is taking place, this is a given beyond question.
        The fight against fracking has much in common with those  undertaken by early unionists. They perceived that their personhood was taken lightly by those who would exploit them, much like people now feel like they are being thrown under the bus by both the fracking companies and the governments that enable them.  

        "The 'Middle' is a crowded place - that is where the effective power is - the extreme right and left might annoy governments, but the middle terrifies them." Johnny Linehan

        by northsylvania on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:35:04 PM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  Yes, and the powers that be (6+ / 0-)

          Always seem so surprised and outraged when we don't just lay down quietly and die while they grow ever richer at our expense.

          God spare me the Heart to fight them... I'll fight the Pirates forever. -Mother Jones

          by JayRaye on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:41:46 PM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  This is the case because they think that we (6+ / 0-)

            are apathetic or are unaware of what is actually going on ... they confuse resignation with apathy! What they do not still get is that the more you put people's backs against the wall, the more that they have less to lose. They tell us that our labour is paid exactly its contribution to society (somehow the contradiction that mothers raising their children are unpaid is acknowledged but not seen as a contradiction) and hence if we are low paid it is our fault, not the system. They undercut our wages, they destroy social subsistence and they think we are not noticing ... we notice ... the thing that was impressive here which was reported by Northsylvania is that those that came out were not all professional activists by any means ... they were people that were completely freaked out by what was happening to the places they lived, where they had absolutely no say, where local government, local residents and any faint pretense of democracy was completely eliminated and their and their children's future were under direct threat ... not everyone believes that destroying the planet to secure cheaper energy prices is a good trade off ... even more so, they know that it is a lie ... the ruling class and corps underestimate us at every turn ...

            "Hegel noticed somewhere that all great world history facts and people so to speak twice occur. He forgot to add: the one time as tragedy, the other time as farce" Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte .

            by NY brit expat on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:57:41 PM PST

            [ Parent ]

        •  Yesterday at a community meeting (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          NY brit expat, JayRaye, northsylvania

          In Denton, Texas, I had to tell the residents that exposure is certain. Fracking 250' behind their homes begins January 7 and continues until February 15th.

          While other people enjoy their natgas heated homes, these families are trying to figure out ways to minimize the harm.

          I gave them a lot of health surveys to fill out. Their suffering might help others in the future.

          Feels so lame.

          •  While hydraulic fracturing is actually (0+ / 0-)

            being conducted, atmospheric emissions from casing wellheads is physically impossible.   Only after flowback operations have commenced after hydraulic fracturing operations have been completed does the potential for emissions exist with process wastewater as VOC bearing aqueous material or as an unstable liquid for purposes of methane in solution.

            •  There are emissions (1+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:

              During the Fracking process.

              •  There are absolutely no emissions during the (0+ / 0-)

                hydraulic fracturing process while it is being conducted.   High pressure injection cannot be conducted if there is any possibility of emissions are the casing wellhead by pipeline that directs hydraulic fracturing fluids down the production casing.

                Operations which produce process wastewater as flowback are not hydraulic fracturing operations.....they are the beginning of production operations, not hydraulic fracturing operations.

                Hydraulic fracturing fluid, prior to its high pressure injection down the production casing during hydraulic fracturing, is not a methane source.   Except for the infrequent use of diesel as a constituent of hydraulic fracturing, the amount of volatile organic compounds contained in hydraulic fracturing fluids prior to well injection is insignificant so hydraulic fracturing fluid tanks (prior to well injection) are not significant VOC, HAP or toxic air discharge sources.   The emission risk with produced water is a completely different story, but that story is part of the production phase and not the hydraulic fracturing phase of well operations.   Hydraulic fracturing ends when well injection operations have been completed.

  •  ACM Schedule (9+ / 0-)

    January 2014:

    12th: Geminijen
    19th: NY Brit Expat



    Geminijen is ill, but Northsylvania was able to step into the breach with tonight's excellent piece. We are covered now until the 26th of January. If there are any volunteers, it will be greatly appreciated!! Please, if you are interested in writing a piece, reply to this message or send a kos message to NY Brit Expat or send an email to our group email:!! Can we get someone to volunteer for the 26th of January? If you can do the 19th, I will be glad to switch with you!

    Wishing you all greetings of the season and a happy and healthy New Years!

    "Hegel noticed somewhere that all great world history facts and people so to speak twice occur. He forgot to add: the one time as tragedy, the other time as farce" Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte .

    by NY brit expat on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:16:55 PM PST

  •  Great diary & outstanding links. (9+ / 0-)

    Here in 'upstate' New York, the numbers of anti-fracking folks I meet continues to grow. Heck,maybe eventually we could count on Gov. Cuomo being among them.

    "George RR Martin is not your bitch" ~~ Neil Gaiman

    by tardis10 on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:27:07 PM PST

    •  i am not generally a person who takes up (5+ / 0-)

      environmental issues, but since New York City'
      s reservoir which provides one of the few clean water supplies to 5 million New Yorkers ( have yet to use anything but tap water)is directly vulnerable to the upstate fracking in New York state.

      I really appreciate your activist approach to the issue.  One of the biggest problems we had fighting fracking was that the gas companies got local landowners to sign leases allowing the companies to do fracking on their land before the owners had a chance to find out the negatives. Once they had signed the leases (for generous amounts of money) it was much harder to reverse the process.  Neighbor was turned against neighbor. So the kind of preemptive local organizing you are talking about really is important.

      Finally, the image that was most effective in making me a fervent anti-fracking advocate was the one where the guy turns on his faucet, holds a lighter to the stream of water coming out of the faucet and the waster bursts into flames.
      Don't know how scientifically accurate that image is but I really didn't care after I saw it.  That was enough for me. No fracking my water!

      (P.S. The practice of fracking is still so little known that the word comes up as incorrectrly spelled in my spell check)

      •  It's accurate. (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        TXsharon, tardis10, JayRaye, NY brit expat

        Rare overall, but common enough not to want to take your chances. Methane follows the path of least resistance upward. Even if the gas bearing shale formation is miles below your house, once the methane is liberated from its matrix, it will try to reach the highest level it can through hairline cracks and faults. If that happens to be your water table, all you can do is make the gas company install a water tank and also make them sign a contract to keep it filled until the well tests clean. If you don't have a baseline water quality survey though, they will insist that your water was always explosive.
        As soon as the word fracking appears in any local media outlet, it's time to lawyer up.

        "The 'Middle' is a crowded place - that is where the effective power is - the extreme right and left might annoy governments, but the middle terrifies them." Johnny Linehan

        by northsylvania on Mon Jan 06, 2014 at 01:29:02 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

      •  The impact that exploding water (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        JayRaye, NY brit expat

        video has had on people is enormous. A visual that lingered and that was embedded in people's minds fairly early on. A kind of you tube triumph. Coupled with the legislation to keep fracking away from the Syracuse & NYC watersheds (yes,I've used the Gee willikers,Mr. Wingnut, guess those gas cos. don't want to ruin more than they can pay for or hide from TV argument a time or two) and the broad based grassroots coalitions of environmentalists,hunters,farmers,etc. working to get anti-fracking legislation passed in many small municipalities have helped stave off these shale ponzi plans. It all helps but the fight is far from over. And yeah,cynical moi recognizes that Cuomo's ambition for higher office has also helped slow down the fracking train.

        "George RR Martin is not your bitch" ~~ Neil Gaiman

        by tardis10 on Mon Jan 06, 2014 at 10:27:51 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  Excellent piece Northsylvania! (9+ / 0-)

    This is a movement that is grass-roots based and is growing and it exists wherever fracking has been introduced. People across countries have been sharing information and are standing in solidarity!

    One of the most interesting things that a lot of the anti-fracking movement has been raising as part of its central arguments is the idea of the earth being the common property of mankind and how its destruction in the name of so-called energy sovereignty is absolute nonsense. I cannot thank you enough for the work you are doing on this and for posting the piece, letting people know that they are all in it together is essential!! Thanks so much for this excellent piece on activism and ecosocialism!!

    "Hegel noticed somewhere that all great world history facts and people so to speak twice occur. He forgot to add: the one time as tragedy, the other time as farce" Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte .

    by NY brit expat on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:34:52 PM PST

    •  Thank you for that, (7+ / 0-)

      and for the work you have been doing with Left Unity. I think it is important to realise, especially when circumstances seem particularly bleak, that when a majority of people identify themselves as being under threat, they will eventually react. JayRaye's diaries show that it took a long time for most workers in America to identify with union organisers, but eventually the outrage built to a head. TxSharon has been working full time for six years in Texas. She has dealt with setbacks, harassment and recently, some spectacular successes.
      I feel that the health of the entire ecosystem is at risk, and try to act accordingly, but realise that there is a lot to hate about fracking, even for people who don't think of themselves as eco-activists.

      "The 'Middle' is a crowded place - that is where the effective power is - the extreme right and left might annoy governments, but the middle terrifies them." Johnny Linehan

      by northsylvania on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:49:46 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  Thanks so much for this. It is important to (5+ / 0-)

    understand the breadth of effects caused by fracking and to see that it is simply another extraction process whose social costs exceed its benefits that only becomes viable under more local and regional power wielded by capitalists and their cronies which in the US context are stronger forces of rural GOP reaction

    Warning - some snark may be above‽ (-9.50; -7.03)‽ eState4Column5©2013 "I’m not the strapping young Muslim socialist that I used to be" - Barack Obama 04/27/2013

    by annieli on Sun Jan 05, 2014 at 03:55:04 PM PST

  •  Thanks Northsylvania for getting me off the hook (4+ / 0-)

    this week - especially with such an informative and important article. My mind is so fuzzy with the flu I really was having trouble getting it together, but will definitely have a diary up next week. Only hope it lives up to the quality of this one!

  •  You said: (0+ / 0-)
    How can anyone possibly think that injecting a highly pressurised column of carcinogenic chemicals into a pipe through the water supply could be a good idea?
    Saying that hydraulic fracturing is conducted by injecting 'carcinogenic chemicals' 'through the water supply' is spreading disinformation about how hydrocarbon wells are constructed   Concentric casings that are installed and cemented into place are fully capable of isolating all other casings and material transfer flows from any such potable groundwater.

    Also, there isn't any process necessity that a hydraulic fracturing additive be carcinogenic for it to be effective.   Hydraulic fracturing fluids that are injected are not as hazardous as Josh Fox portrays.

  •  Great strategic diary with applications (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Unca Joseph

    beyond natural gas. One technical comment I'd add is that natural gas is itself badly wasted during oil extraction. To the extent we are using natural gas it should be a part of a global conservation regime to avoid waste and limit use to applications that truly need the nitrogen. I don't want to change the thread to the organic fertilizer debate but those interested in that issue could look at the socialized report on soil and scarcity that is part of Francisco's Pamphlet No. 1 at It has some scholarly cites on the waste and competing uses of natural gas. The idea of extracting it recklessly while we waste other supplies to the atmosphere and may need the nitrogen for other purposes is worth noting. Similarly when we have a wasteful ag sector we raise demand for N fertilizer unnecessarily. Cuba has done a good job with organic fertilizer. The market capitalist countries would be wise to emulate many current Cuban ag practices. They are by far the most efficient and least ag import dependent of all the Carribean counties.

    Thanks again for a wonderful work of solidarity in this diary.

    I'm on the left wing of the possible. I write for the same reasons Eric Arthur Blair did, just not as well.

    by Galtisalie on Fri Jan 10, 2014 at 06:53:04 PM PST

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