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Facebook has discovered its users' emotions can be manipulated into positive or negative states by "tweaking" their news feeds after conducting an enormous experiment on 689,003 users reports Gregory S. McNeal of Forbes in Facebook Manipulated User News Feeds To Create Emotional Responses.

Facebook conducted a massive psychological experiment on 689,003 users, manipulating their news feeds to assess the effects on their emotions.    The details of the experiment were published in an article entitled “Experimental Evidence Of Massive-Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks” published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

The experiment tested whether emotional contagion occurs between individuals on Facebook, a question the authors (a Facebook scientist and two academics) tested by using an automated system to reduce the amount of emotional content in Facebook news feeds.  The authors found that when they manipulated user timelines to reduce positive expressions displayed by others “people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred.”

The results suggest that “emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks.”  For a long time research on emotional contagion was premised on the need for in-person and nonverbal cues, this experiment suggests “in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others’ positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.”

McNeal points out that all Facebook users agree to participate as subjects in the companies "research" by agreeing to the terms of use. Facebook's Data Use Policy. In their paper the authors assert that such automated testing, “was consistent with Facebook’s Data Use Policy, to which all users agree prior to creating an account on Facebook, constituting informed consent for this research.”

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The full article can be found here Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks, by Adam D. I. Kramera,1, Jamie E. Guilloryb, and Jeffrey T. Hancockc published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

We show, via a massive (N = 689,003) experiment on Facebook, that emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. We provide experimental evidence that emotional contagion occurs without direct interaction between people (exposure to a friend expressing an emotion is sufficient), and in the complete absence of nonverbal cues.

Abstract

Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others’ positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

12:43 AM PT: Hey, I just thought of some cool follow-up research. Face book could filter the new feeds of users for more or less favorable coverage of political candidates, Parties and issue, and then see how much they could influence poll results, and even voting patterns. I just wanted to be the first to "stake out this exciting new research area. (Snark alert!)

This could also open up considerable marketing opportunities for social media organization to generate new "revenue sources" from political candidates political parties, and 501(c)4s who could purchase  "mindshare" and form opinion and feelings  of whole communities on broad ranges of issues and celebrity politicians. (Double snark alert!)

Well, actually this is already being done obviously, but now they can charge higher rates now that they have scientific proof that that if works. (Sad truth, alert!)


Originally posted to SciTech on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:32 AM PDT.

Also republished by PostHuffPost: Connection-Conversation-Community and And Now for Something Completely Different .

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Comment Preferences

  •  Tip Jar (125+ / 0-)

    Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

    by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:32:09 AM PDT

  •  Welcome to the Matrix (21+ / 0-)

    Being a contrarian, I avoid the Done Thing, but I did succumb to the Facebook™ lure to the point of actually opening an account. Understanding the evilness of the Face enterprise, I eventually closed my account--freedom at last!

  •  Ok, this is just weird... (39+ / 0-)

    And these ToS agreements we all sign are downright Orwellian.

    "If one would give me six lines written by the hand of the most honest man, I would find something in them to have him hanged." - 17th-century French clergyman and statesman Cardinal Richelieu.

    by markthshark on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:57:00 AM PDT

  •  You beat me to it. (39+ / 0-)

    My own post was going to reference the idea that such manipulation can be used for either political or commercial propaganda.

    I was busy posting it to a Mensa group first, and by the time I got here you'd already posted it. So I will leave my own post as a commentary:

    BCC: People who ought to know better than have a Facebook account, and Mensa Region Seven Feisty Debate Yahoo Group.

    http://www.pnas.org/... (full study)

    Facebook released a study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showing how emotional states can be transferred by emotional contagion. They did it by manipulating the Facebook feeds of users and then measured the results as they spread across Facebook. 689,003 people were unwitting participants in the experiment.

    From the study:
    ----- ----- -----
    The experiments took place for 1 wk (January 11–18, 2012). Participants were randomly selected based on their User ID, resulting in a total of ∼155,000 participants per condition who posted at least one status update during the experimental period.

    For each experiment, two dependent variables were examined pertaining to emotionality expressed in people’s own status updates: the percentage of all words produced by a given person that was either positive or negative during the experimental period. In total, over 3 million posts were analyzed, containing over 122 million words, 4 million of which were positive (3.6%) and 1.8 million negative (1.6%).

    If affective states are contagious via verbal expressions on Facebook (our operationalization of emotional contagion), people in the positivity-reduced condition should be less positive compared with their control, and people in the negativity-reduced condition should be less negative.
    ----- ----- -----

    In other words, what Facebook did was intentionally manipulate the emotions of the unwilling participants to see how their posts affected the entire Facebook site. In short, they found they could manipulate the emotional state of Facebook’s user base both positively and negatively.

    Being able to manipulate people’s emotional states through social media has huge implications for everything from advertising to government propaganda.

    Facebook’s privacy policy clearly states when you sign up for Facebook that Facebook may use any data you post to the site in any way it sees fit. That would include manipulating your emotions through your Facebook wall. The full report of the study is available, along with the abstract of the study, at the PNAS link above.

    This is yet another reason why I will never sign up for a Facebook account, even under an assumed name. It is not because I am a Luddite but because I value my privacy and independence, such as they are in the modern world. The lead researcher on the study was the Core Data Science Team of Facebook, Incorporated.

    “The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”—Edward Bernays (1891-1995), Propaganda

    "A Conservative is a fellow who is standing athwart history yelling 'Stop!'"—William F. Buckley, Jr.—Founder of the conservative policy magazine The Weekly Standard

    by Village Vet on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 01:22:55 AM PDT

  •  From what did or did not get posted (9+ / 0-)

    on my timeline over the course of a year, I gathered they had been doing this. Facebook is all right for some uses, but like most other aspects of contemporary life, it should be approached with skepticism and a critical mind.

    "The 'Middle' is a crowded place - that is where the effective power is - the extreme right and left might annoy governments, but the middle terrifies them." Johnny Linehan

    by northsylvania on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 01:27:40 AM PDT

  •  Bwahahaha...my Facebook persona is pure sock pu... (8+ / 0-)

    Bwahahaha...my Facebook persona is pure sock puppet...and I know of quite a few other Facebook socks...so staticians beware...your data collection efforts have included intentional subversion.

  •  Herding sheep ain't that hard... just saying. (11+ / 0-)

    "Life without emotions is like an engine without fuel."

    "It's said that the honest man has nothing to hide. Not true. The honest man has to hide himself, because honest men are the prime targets of those who lie."

    by roseeriter on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 01:41:20 AM PDT

  •  Sometimes I feel better after I read a HoundDog (14+ / 0-)

    diary, sometimes I feel worse...

    Oh well, I'm sure it's nothing.

    (joking)

    •  How often would you say these feelings of (6+ / 0-)

      suspiciousness last alx9090?

      How many of your friends to you typically mention them too?

      Do you believe Less Harvey Oswald Acted Alone?

      Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

      by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:25:55 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Milliseconds, HoundDog. You have much cred here! (0+ / 0-)

        And I only tell friends if they pass the Voight-Kampf test. Usually no problem since I give extra credit questions and grade on a curve ;)

        Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone exactly once. He was in a 1-actor avant-garde production of My Fair Lady.  It was atrocious. Although, it was much, much better than Cats.  

        At least 80% snark/humor above.

  •  "See this cute kitten! Now vote for Rand Paul!"n/t (11+ / 0-)
  •  Windows 8 is doing something weird (17+ / 0-)

    My W7 laptop gave me the black screen of doom/death some 6+ weeks ago.  I bought a laptop with W8 the next day.  Those little buttons all go to web sites where you can buy merchandise.  I deleted them..., and they migrated to a page down from the main page.

    Of the one or two I did use (one being IE - which I used to download a decent browser & not so decent email program, both from Mozilla), had boxes I had to UNcheck that had the default of me giving them permission to spy on me "to improve my online experience" - and they would 'suggest sites I might be interested in visiting.'

    Riiiiiiiiiiiiiiight.  They want me to buy their crap..., and share my info with other corporations who want to sell me stuff.

    Jeeze.  Talk about corporations ganging up on people as they flood us with ads, ads, and more fucking ads!!!

    Gaaaaaaah!  Gaaaaack!

    "Net Neutrality" has turned into a world-wide marketplace.  That's all good and well if the ads sit on the borders and I can ignore them, but when they start flashing, or take up the whole page with some stupid animated ad I can't turn off or close right away, or click on a link in a news feed that takes me to pages with popups and side ads that slide out intrusively and I can't close the bloody things..., that's too much!

    I'm sick of attempts to steer this nation from principles evolved in The Age of Reason to hallucinations derived from illiterate herdsmen. ~ Crashing Vor

    by NonnyO on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 04:16:46 AM PDT

    •  --Which Is Why All Our New Purchases Have Been Win (10+ / 0-)

      7 machines. Later this summer we'll be acquiring several spare hard drives. My desktop is around 8 yrs old running XP, and I expect these win 7 machines to be running into the 2020's.

      We are called to speak for the weak, for the voiceless, for victims of our nation and for those it calls enemy.... --ML King "Beyond Vietnam"

      by Gooserock on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 05:28:27 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  Just wait until your ISP (10+ / 0-)

      starts changing some of the words in the web pages you visit to promote certain products or views, in ways that are hard to detect. E.g. a travel article that mentions a certain car brand rented by the author, or airline flown, even though the original article didn't mention them. It's probably already legal for them to do this on most content. To alter copywritten content they could enter into agreements with content providers to allow them to do this, in exchange for micro-payments. I doubt the NYT would have a problem with that given their revenue problems. It's just "innocent" product placement, not a drastic rewrite of an article. And that's just an example of commercial manipulation. There will likely also be ideological manipulation.

      "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

      by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 05:40:20 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  My ISP is a local outfit... (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        kovie, StrayCat, HoundDog, NoMoreLies

        ... staffed by local people.

        They don't have anything on their home page that doesn't pertain to their company.

        However..., when I go check my Yahoo news and genealogy email lists after I've been on overseas web sites, or web sites in the US, doing genealogy searches, ads for Ancestry.com sometimes appear.

        On Hulu Charter always has a minimum of three rotating ads.  For years I've been getting a minimum of 3-6 envelopes with Charter offers per WEEK (I often wonder how many dead trees they've wasted with their bleeping ads).  With Charter's over-abundance of ads littering my snail-mailbox and my Hulu TV watching, when the ad comes on Hulu shows and that question in the corner says "Is this ad relevant to you?" I always click NO.

        I suspect advertisers don't know what to do with my searches.  If I don't search for genealogy info for myself, I also search for others.  Then, when I'm on DK and click on a link, or see something I'm curious about, or a term I haven't heard before, I often go on Wikipedia and look something up.  Sometimes Google is useful for word definitions if I need to look something up or check spelling, but less often than Wikipedia.  In any case, search terms run the gamut from mundane to way out there, nothing pertains to past or future queries, and only practicality or curiosity has prompted my search, so I'm not that easy to pigeonhole.

        Aaaaand, I hear a rumbling thunderstorm in the distance, so I'm going to disconnect all computer equipment before lightening starts.  Even though I have most things backed up, I still can't afford to buy another laptop so soon.

        Later....

        I'm sick of attempts to steer this nation from principles evolved in The Age of Reason to hallucinations derived from illiterate herdsmen. ~ Crashing Vor

        by NonnyO on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:20:55 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Yeah, better before careful with electrical storms (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          blueoasis, HoundDog, NonnyO

          As for results manipulation, I was referring to actual content, not ads, which can be annoying but are fairly easy to filter out either literally or cognitively. I don't know that this is actually happening, in the US at least, but it's certainly possible, and I'm sure going on in countries like N Korea, China and Iran.

          "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

          by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:41:53 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

        •  Same here, but the ads are from Citibank, (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          blueoasis, HoundDog, NonnyO

          Direct TV and Comcast, non of which I will do business with.  Maybe I save them all in a box and send them to the Postal committees of Congress.

          Patriotism may be the last refuge of scoundrels, but religion is assuredly the first.

          by StrayCat on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:27:14 AM PDT

          [ Parent ]

          •  I get some of those, too... (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            StrayCat

            ... just not three times per week.

            Charter is REALLY annoying to me now, and there's not a chance in hell I'd actually use their "services" because their frequent mailings and online ads on Hulu just piss me off now.

            I'm sick of attempts to steer this nation from principles evolved in The Age of Reason to hallucinations derived from illiterate herdsmen. ~ Crashing Vor

            by NonnyO on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 03:18:59 PM PDT

            [ Parent ]

        •  I've started using "Duckduckgo" for searches... (4+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          HoundDog, NonnyO, cville townie, raynmakr

          more often than Google.  duckduckgo.com claims to be:  

          The search engine that doesn't track you.
      •  That's easy to beat (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        HoundDog

        Just use Adblock and Noscript. No problems.

        First they came for the farm workers, and I said nothing.

        by Hannibal on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:22:22 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  I wouldn't be surprised Kovie, but then it's (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        ER Doc, kovie, samanthab, NonnyO

        hard to surprise the HoundDog when he is so well rested on his new Temprapedic mattress from Jordan's Furniture, where sleep scientist customize sleeping solutions to the HoundDog's sleeping needs, so he's refreshed and ready for action each and every day.

        And, did you know the HoundDog also maintains his shiny healthy coat with Nature Maid vitamins for that active dog, on sale at your local CVS.  

        Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

        by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:38:02 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

      •  The content is already being manuipulated (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        NonnyO

        What do you think Google's business is?
        The changing, on-the-fly, of copyrighted content, for instance changing an article on fracking to be positive or negative based on the user is pretty farfetched and doesn't make much economic sense, but delivering up articles you want to read based on your political preferences may already be happening in some places, as this diary points out.

        "You can die for Freedom, you just can't exercise it"

        by shmuelman on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 11:59:24 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Changing copywritten material without consent (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          NonnyO, samanthab, raynmakr

          is, if not illegal, then certainly legally perilous, and Google wouldn't be so stupid to try. Rather, they'd either get permission (and pay for it of course), or get into the content creation business themselves, and skew it in ways that would benefit it. Only idiots believe that there's a truly free market of products and ideas that isn't mostly controlled by a small number of powerful players. Sure, there are sites like this, The Nation, Mother Jones, etc., but most people haven't heard of and don't read them. In any case, I think we're increasingly going to see targeted and tailored content, and not just ads.

          "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

          by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 02:30:50 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

    •  I'm almost as upset with Windows 8... (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      StrayCat, cville townie, HoundDog, NonnyO

      as I am with iOS 7.

      The United States for All Americans

      by TakeSake on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:37:16 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  I got, and promptly got rid of a Google S4 phone (5+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Woody, blueoasis, HoundDog, high uintas, NonnyO

      In February.  It was impossible to use any of its features unless you checked a box that meant that you agreed that Google owned all of your activity on that phone.  I sold it back to Verizon for three times what I paid for it and went back to my flip phone.  Leaving Verizon for Credo this week and not getting a smart phone from them either.  I think that I'll have to create an alternate identity to have any privacy.  I did this for fun back in 2003' and still hey email and snail mail to this non existent person.  I only sent one e mail under that name in 2002. In that time, that non existent person has developed a credit score, a health record history, and apparently a personality.  So, there is hope for autonomy in anonymity.

      Patriotism may be the last refuge of scoundrels, but religion is assuredly the first.

      by StrayCat on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:25:06 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  I am not sure you are clear on "spy on me" (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      ER Doc

      I don't usually allow it, but remember, your data is entirely anonymous and its collection is a method they use to look at how well your browser is working. It is not used for targeting advertisements. If you want Mozilla, or anyone else, to be able to create optimized browsers , there needs to be statistics from millions of sites, to figure how the browser handles all kinds of HTML, CSS and JavaScript, how well Silverlight and other streaming media plugins works in the browser. If you are concerned about being spied upon, you are being spied upon by the US Government and there is nothing you can do about it. Because teh terrorists.
      This is rather different from Google tracking which is used to target advertisements by third parties, based on what you have been browsing.
      "Net Neutrality" is about about the routing of IP packets and has nothing to do with the content, but rather the content provider and the data types of content "e.g. text v. streaming content such as Netflix).

      "You can die for Freedom, you just can't exercise it"

      by shmuelman on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 11:54:24 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  When they want to share... (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        awhitestl

        ... my info with other corporations, or "enhance my internet experience by showing me things they think I might be interested in based on past searches," then they're doing my thinking for me and spying on me, as far as I'm concerned.

        Thanks, but "sheeple" is not one of my personality traits.

        I'm sick of attempts to steer this nation from principles evolved in The Age of Reason to hallucinations derived from illiterate herdsmen. ~ Crashing Vor

        by NonnyO on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 03:26:30 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

  •  I have everything turned off. (5+ / 0-)

    The only posts that come up on my newsfeed are from my kids.  Anybody else I am friends with (mostly extended family) I have to go look at their feeds to update myself on what they are posting.  Facebook makes it difficult but just ask google and usually a good answer pops up to fix just about anything.  

  •  I'm convinced that Google does this in searches (7+ / 0-)

    That is, skew results to fit their commercial AND ideological preferences. Perhaps corporations (and government) have found the perfect public control device, the internet, where with the right software they can gently nudge public opinion in preferred directions. What's to stop them from blocking certain results, or filtering out "unapproved" parts of results, in ways that are nearly impossible to detect? Just a few changed words here and there, who's going to know the difference? It's all happening on the server side so you won't be able to peek in the code to see what's up.

    "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

    by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 05:33:02 AM PDT

    •  I see that... (5+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      StrayCat, blueoasis, HoundDog, cany, awhitestl

      on both Google and Yahoo. Searches with quotations hardly work anymore either. It fuzzy searches the quoted term to give false results.

      The United States for All Americans

      by TakeSake on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:39:10 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Over the years my Google search results (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        StrayCat, blueoasis, HoundDog, Kanscott

        have gotten less useful, and increasingly feel intentionally manipulated (albeit via software, as I'm not important enough to merit my own human net minder). I hope and assume that it's purely for commercial purposes, but I sense that it's not just about nudging me towards companies that pay Google to have traffic directed towards them, but something more subtle, like keeping me from knowing things that might take away business from such companies, e.g. DIY knowledge about auto or home repair. It's in Google's interests to keep us stupid and ignorant, from a revenue generation POV.

        "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

        by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:47:28 AM PDT

        [ Parent ]

        •  Alternatives to Google (0+ / 0-)

          Those concerned about privacy with web searches can find alternatives. Two that come to mind are:

          https://www.ixquick.com/

          or even more secure the Tor Project software that protects you from traffic analysis. Tor encrypts and distributes your traffic across many places on the internet to make it it anonymous. The software is free and there is much more information if you follow the link.

          I've use both methods, but have no affiliation with either.

          It would be better not to know so many things than to know so many things that are not so. - Felix Okaye

          by eclecticguy on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 03:34:11 PM PDT

          [ Parent ]

    •  Really? What benefit is that to them? (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      ER Doc, DAISHI

      People pay Google to place their advertisements. One reason I prefer Google searching is you can see the difference between "organic" search results and paid search results. BTW, paid results are sometimes more helpful than the organic results and are what I am looking for (like when buying plumbing parts). If you search on Yahoo the results are a total mess.
      If you want to see how advertising is directed towards you, look at a web page that is pitching shoes or something else you have been searching for, then clear your cookies and cache and hit "refresh." You will see different results.
      Remember, some people take the First Amendment seriously, and censorship on Google in this country, I believe is virtually non-existant, unlike in China and the Middle East. I think that de facto censorship, like network news which is corporate oriented and corporate owned, is much more insidious and dangerous.

      "You can die for Freedom, you just can't exercise it"

      by shmuelman on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:09:20 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

      •  Censorship doesn't apply to private companies (0+ / 0-)

        And the benefit is in steering people towards their ideological and economic ecosystem. Wait till Amazon, Google, Apple, FB et al expand their media holdings and presence. It will become too seductive for them to not engage in subtle manipulation, especially when everyone else does.

        "Reagan's dead, and he was a lousy president" -- Keith Olbermann 4/22/09

        by kovie on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 02:24:34 PM PDT

        [ Parent ]

    •  I noticed this at least 5 years ago (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      kovie

      A Google search from my home computer, and the same search from my workplace computer, yielded different results. I have noticed this hundreds of times over the last few years. It becomes annoying when I want to review something that came up as a hit on the first page of the Google search at home, then a day later appears on page 4 of the Google search at work.

      My home and my workplace of course have different ISP's. The filtering at work does not block much (a porn site came up at work while investigating something TOTALLY innocent).

      I  do not use the workplace computer for holiday shopping and personal stuff. Not because I am a goodie-goodie type, but because it would not surprise me if the master records  keystrokes.

      For years, I have gotten emails and pop-ups for fake Viagra and mail order brides and the like, because I am heavily into astronomy and do searches related to telescopes and gear. Being a straight female, it amuses me to get offers for things that appeal to the lonely nerdy guys who are a significant percent of the amateur astronomy community.

      "The will must be stronger than the skill." M. Ali

      by awhitestl on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:50:38 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Y'Know Even In the Feudal Age the Serfs Had (6+ / 0-)

    their own minds, within the limits of what they could know. Today ownership knows the mind of the people before a thought has coalesced into the smallest conclusion --or it can know, where it wants to.

    Commerce and culture are direct opposites, they function oppositely. Just as privacy is becoming a physical impossibility, so are progressivism and enlightenment becoming impossible, because the peoples' very experiences are increasingly commercial products, no longer trustably reflective of reality.

    Culture additionally has features that reward both action and restraint alike, because cultures have evolved over eons to cope with conditions of surplus and shortage, strength and weakness, triumph and defeat. Commerce by contrast can only reward action; there is no way for a business or business person to profit from doing nothing, as a human being can profit culturally and socially from refraining from doing or saying things in many circumstances.

    And so wherever we provide the services of culture through commerce, we are practicing culture with half our brain lobotomized away, and that especially opens us to the risks that follow from always having to act and never being able to refrain from acting.

    In this era you might say the risks of that are blowin' in the wind.

    We are called to speak for the weak, for the voiceless, for victims of our nation and for those it calls enemy.... --ML King "Beyond Vietnam"

    by Gooserock on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 05:36:48 AM PDT

    •  Serfs had their own minds (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      StrayCat, HoundDog, shmuelman, high uintas

      I guess you haven't heard about religion.

      Dark stuff, that mind control.  

    •  Culture and commerce are not opposites (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      StrayCat, Woody, HoundDog

      Forever and always they have been each other's driver and complement.

      What IS culture?

      Archaeologists dig up a lot more than bones...they look for pottery, utensils, and ornament. Thousands of years from now they might be digging up your old laptop and come up with "We believe the people of the early 21st century worshiped small black boxes with buttons."  Our culture has been driven to worship all things internet by companies like Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Apple. I'm not complaining. The advent of the automobile, moving pictures, radios, TV, telephone...all those contributed to what our culture is today. And they wouldn't have happened or become so ubiquitous without commerce driving the innovation. This why many of us are unwilling to chuck out capitalism.

      And yet it is because the two are so intertwined that commerce needs the opposite of "unfettered"...anything that important needs to be governed by the people that are influenced by it and/or could be endangered by it.

      In the past we had congresses that were very busy creating all sorts of laws and regulations...until that became unfashionable and "socialist." Sometimes those laws were ridiculous but more often than not they had deeper purpose and controlled such things as consumer protections and employment agreements.

      We have government for the purpose of controlling the commerce and the culture for the benefit of all of us. Maybe I should have used the verb "had." In any case, you can't separate culture and commerce without sending culture back into the dark ages. It is no coincidence that we have had a do-nothing congress for years and are now seeing one corporation after another abusing customers and employees. They are only taking advantage of our culture's decades-long fetish with "unfettered capitalism." Until we elect a government that actually WORKS for its people (i.e., "Culture") again, the only question is how far do we let commerce ABUSE our citizenry.

  •  Pretty cool (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    cardinal, HoundDog

    I'm skeptical of the measures taken to carve out control feeds, though.

  •  They did it to me over a period of maybe (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    GDbot, Woody, HoundDog, awhitestl

    10 days or so...I got lots of posts from very right wing orgs on FB, from the ridiculous to the very offensive. I tried to leave an equally offensive remark or comment on each of those places, so it was not wasted, but it was irritating.

    I do not even like to see right wingers on my TV - I turn off any program even MSNBC that has a rightie on it. FB's manipulations allowed me to leave a hearty fuck you on several of their base.

    "The tides go out, the tides come in...Nobody knows why." Glenn Beck, 2014.

    by old mark on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 05:45:16 AM PDT

  •  Ya think, HD? (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog

    I'm just waiting for FB to offer an ad free version, for a fee.

    "The light which puts out our sight is darkness to us." Thoreau

    by NancyWH on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:28:34 AM PDT

  •  I'd be very interested (5+ / 0-)

    to know if anyone targeted by the study committed suicide as a result of these manipulations.

    "The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding."--Justice Louis Brandeis

    by Spiffydigs on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:40:43 AM PDT

  •  Thanks HoundDog, (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    StrayCat, Woody, HoundDog

    very important. Now a question. Is it possible that Microsoft's filtering software deciding which incoming emails to your hotmail account are junk which one not, is also manipulated?

    Just asking, because reading through my junk email, what I very seldom did, but had to do lately, gave me the idea that "something is not right" in the way it is decided what is "junk" and what is 'Not junk".

    Oh gosh, how do I hate the fact that we are so dependent on the internet services.

    We know a hell of a lot, but we understand very little. Manfred Max-Neef

    by mimi on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:58:48 AM PDT

  •  Another good reason (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog, StrayCat, alx9090

    I never joined FB. I'm constantly vindicated by these articles.  Makes me happy!

    People act on the outside how they feel on the inside. If you acknowledge it, you can change it.

    by Raggedy Ann on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 06:59:08 AM PDT

  •  They had to do a "massive" experiment... (5+ / 0-)

    ...to prove that emotions are contagious?

    These people aren't very bright, are they?

    Non futuis apud Boston

    by kenlac on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:01:08 AM PDT

    •  No, but they will not be able to figure that out (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      alx9090

      without an even bigger experiment. Maybe we can sell than an external contracting experiment for $10 billion dollars to prove it.

      Their canceled check will be he proof.

      Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

      by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:47:04 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  "The Century Of Self" BBC Documentary Series (4+ / 0-)

    The Century of the Self is a British television documentary series by Adam Curtis, released in 2002. It focuses on how the work of Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, and Edward Bernays influenced the way corporations and governments have analyzed, dealt with, and controlled people.

    It's worth the time watching this series on You tube.

    You Don't Happen To Make It. You Make It Happen !

    by jeffrey789 on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:19:19 AM PDT

  •  McLuhan would call Facebook... (5+ / 0-)

    ..."hot media".  Zukerberg wants to turn it into "cool media".  Mark has been trying to be cool since his college days;

    Mark Zuckerberg's Outrageous Week in Uruguay

    The pets were banished. "Pets that live on the property were taken to a vet because, within the millionaire's group, some people are very allergic," reports El Pais.
    Everything was scrubbed with special chemicals. "All the property was cleaned with special products," El Pais added.
    A ridiculous number of servants and guards were hired. It sounds like roughly a 1-1 ratio of staff to visitors: A chef, a cook, two maids, two bodyguards, and at least two "specially hired security guards." So at least eight people serving nine guests.
    All the furniture was replaced. If you're going to be hanging out somewhere for eight whole days, do you really want out-of-date, unfashionable, dusty old millionaire-vacation-home furniture lying around? No you do not, not if you're worth $17.5 billion. All furniture in the vacation home was reportedly removed and replaced.
    But he just doesn't get it.

    Daily Kos an oasis of truth. Truth that leads to action.

    by Shockwave on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 08:52:43 AM PDT

    •  Yes, the key thing about "social media" (4+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      HoundDog, Shockwave, ER Doc, NoMoreLies

      is not that it is "social", it is that it is "media". And like TV and other media before it, the profit-seeking goals of Facebook want to make it far less useful than it could be.

      Facebook is the only site where I use Adblock. I'm fine with most sites getting ad revenue, but Facebook's sponsorship programs are socially manipulative and try to extract money from normal social relations, so I don't want to be involved in them.

  •  You've been experimented on by "The Media" ... (4+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog, ER Doc, cville townie, alx9090

    for years; radio, tv, and now the internet. Clear Channel, FOX, and Facebook want to be your friends.


    I’m not a big fan of vegetable gardens. Like my chickens, I prefer my salads to be cage free.

    by glb3 on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 09:05:24 AM PDT

  •  Legal versus ethics of human subjects research (14+ / 0-)

    The news item addresses the legality of the research but doesn't address the ethics of using human subjects.  The lead author is a member of the American Psychological Association, and the APA includes this:

    * Informed consent must be obtained from all participants prior to the research. If potential participants cannot give consent, such as children, informed consent must be obtained from a responsible surrogate, such as a parent.

    * Participants’ freedom to decline or to withdraw at any time must be fully respected by the investigator.

    * It is the researcher’s responsibility to detect and to remove any negative effects of the research, including long-term consequences.

    In addition to following APA's guidelines, a co-author, Hancock, seems to be a faculty member at Cornell and I would expect Cornell to have similar guidelines.  (My computer is running too slow this morning to look for that.)

    The following is all that the researchers say about informed consent:

    As such, it was consistent with Facebook’s Data Use Policy, to which all users agree prior to creating an account on Facebook, constituting informed consent for this research.
    I  expect I won't be the only person to voice concerns about the researchers actually complying with informed consent by using Facebooks EULA agreement as cover.  Especially when emotional manipulation is involved.  

    How many of the subjects were children?  I doubt the authors addressed the fact that anyone of any age can sign up for Facebook without parental knowledge much less actual informed consent. We all have "Just click that button" behavior.

    My prediction: Facebook just stepped into it, and the authors are going to have some explaining to do among their peers.

    •  ^^^THIS^^^ (10+ / 0-)

      Taking existing data of activity as it is naturally occurring in order to do research is one thing. Manipulating the experience of those involved in the activity is a whole other thing, where your point about informed consent should be a very big deal.

      “Texas is a so-called red state, but you’ve got 10 million Democrats here in Texas. And …, there are a whole lot of people here in Texas who need us, and who need us to fight for them.” President Obama

      by Catte Nappe on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:09:12 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  Excellent points sawgrass727. I was having (6+ / 0-)

      similar thoughts.

      No respectable university human subjects research committee could consider this to be sufficient informed consent because everyone knows that no one reads the fine print of those contracts, especially not children who are eager to play with their know toys and not of sufficient legal age to agree to such consent.

      Those authors should have known that and should be reprimanded by their colleagues who should also make new rules forbidding such hidden "implied consent" trickery, and/or opportunism.

      Facebook owes its uses an apology.

      All internet companies owe their users higher levels of promises of trust and respect.

       

      Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

      by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:56:01 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  This will appear in Top Comments tonight (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      NoMoreLies, awhitestl, Gwennedd

      How many  of us just click on EULA agreements knowing they're written in lawyer legal language to be deliberately confusing and mind-numbing.

      There already is class warfare in America. Unfortunately, the rich are winning.

      by Puddytat on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:02:52 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

    •  Devil's advocacy? (0+ / 0-)

      Having emphatically agreed with the comment, I'm going to go a bit devil's advocate here.

      My thoughts go back to a "survey" I helped participate in while in college. A new library had been built. The designers made a decision to delay installing sidewalks from nearby buildings and parking areas. Instead, they would do some research and observations about what routes people actually took across the lawn toward the library entrance. Some of us were tasked to watch and take notes of how people approached and from which directions. In addition, of course, greatly preferred routes would reveal themselves as people walked them and wore the grass down to dirt paths.

      This example sort of matches my first point - that it is one thing to collect data while people are naturally involved in an activity. But I posited that it was  a different matter to interfere with the natural participation in that activity. But what if some manipulations of the environment were made to test different behaviors. Maybe a park bench situated one place for a few days, then moved to another place - to see if people's behavior changed in response to the bench's presence.  So if one views the FB environment as a similar sort of public commons we could say they were just moving the bench around to see what happened.

      In which case the difference is not just the manipulation, but what was being manipulated. Manipulating the random paths people take from the parking lot to the door is quite different from manipulating people's emotions. The users who were given an extra dose of negative messaging apparently "caught" those negative feelings, and spread them in subsequent posts they made. Quite likely the same negative feelings spilled into RL as well - snapping at a spouse, being snarky with a supervisor, argumentative with a store clerk, etc. This could be some serious "messing with" people's lives. But then, how much of such emotional manipulation are we already subjected to in the public arena through marketing, political messaging, and so on?

      “Texas is a so-called red state, but you’ve got 10 million Democrats here in Texas. And …, there are a whole lot of people here in Texas who need us, and who need us to fight for them.” President Obama

      by Catte Nappe on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:34:15 PM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Not just politics (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog
    This could also open up considerable marketing opportunities for social media organization to generate new "revenue sources"
    No doubt this is already informing marketing strategies of all kinds of products, which are much more lucrative than politics.

    “Texas is a so-called red state, but you’ve got 10 million Democrats here in Texas. And …, there are a whole lot of people here in Texas who need us, and who need us to fight for them.” President Obama

    by Catte Nappe on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:05:34 AM PDT

    •  This shows a lack of respect for their users. (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      alx9090

      Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

      by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:57:24 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  Facebook says, "Take your Soma." (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog, awhitestl

    So you better take your Soma.  

    Don't want to make Facebook angry.

    Righteousness is a wide path. Self-righteousness is a bullhorn and a blindfold.

    by Murphoney on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:09:03 AM PDT

  •  Very creepy (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog, pgm 01

    I know that moods transfer.  We all experience it.  I hope I am not on Facebook enough to get my emotions too tweaked.  this does not surprise me but I do think it is very creepy.  Does Facebook want to be associated with creepy?

  •  My emotion is outrage. (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    HoundDog, Subterranean

    And I got it by reading this.  I hope they didn't pay money to find out what we have already known for years: humans react to what other humans do and say, in a herdlike way.

    If you hate government, don't run for office in that government.

    by Bensdad on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:29:38 AM PDT

    •  I agree bensdad, and our emotions are valid as (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      Subterranean

      Facebook has shown disrespect for users treating us as objects to be toyed with.

      Humor Alert! No statement from this UID is intended to be true, including this one. Intended for recreational purposes only. Unauthorized interpretations may lead to unexpected results. This waiver void where prohibited. Artistic License - 420420

      by HoundDog on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 10:59:34 AM PDT

      [ Parent ]

  •  'Emotional contagion' on Facebook -- (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    i saw an old tree today

    Fascinating, HoundDog!  Thanks!

  •  HD, If you haven't yet check out this article (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    pgm 01

    Did climate deniers just admit they don’t know what they’re talking about? by Dawn Stover over at the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

    You might like it ☺

  •  Recc'd for "Hey, I just thought of some cool (0+ / 0-)

    "Hey, I just thought of some cool follow-up research"
    Seems where it's all going. I stay off of Facebook, or don't take it seriously at all. But I am an old-timer.

    "You can die for Freedom, you just can't exercise it"

    by shmuelman on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 11:38:09 AM PDT

  •  Stop using "news feed" and use "most recent." I... (0+ / 0-)

    Stop using "news feed" and use "most recent." I've never used news feed. Why anybody does is completely effing beyond me and has been for years. News feed sucks. This just makes it that much more obvious...

  •  The rash on my ass is getting worse. (0+ / 0-)

    The girlfriend had an abortion.  I think it was another dude's baby.  My sister has cancer.  I hate the bitch, but what the fuck.  I think it was my brother who stole all that money.  A lot of strippers tell me he is overspending lately.  He is going to get the clap for sure.

    Speaking of the clap, my next door neighbor's wife came down with it.  And NO I didn't give it to her. lol.  

    My daughter seems to be paying an awful lot of attention to the new preacher.  I don't think her gaydar is very strong.  Not that there is anything wrong with that.

    The wife is starting menopause and Jesus Christ is she ever touchy.  

    Well, that's all of my Facebook post for today.  Cheers.

    Please hit LIKE.

    There is an endless supply of white men, there has always been a limited number of Human Beings

    by ratprique on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:04:59 PM PDT

  •  Facebook, the opiate of the masses n/t (0+ / 0-)

    I'm a Vietnam Era vet. I'm also an Erma Bombeck Era vet. When cussing me out and calling me names please indicate which vet you would like to respond to your world changing thoughts.

    by Just Bob on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 12:50:56 PM PDT

  •  I've wondered why Fred Astaire was so popular (0+ / 0-)

    It's been kind of a mystery to me why Fred Astaire movies -- and other films about the opulently rich -- were such popular Saturday afternoon fare during the depths of the Depression.  It would seem to me that watching the banal romantic complications of the carefree wealthy would just inflame resentment and "negative emotions" in an audience of people ground down by unemployment and made fearful by the uncertainty of their and their families' income.  Having the indolent rich flaunt their lifestyles in my face would/could certainly do that for me!

    However, I do think that most people will choose to be happy rather than sad, accepting rather than angry.  So, research that says there's a shared stake in repeating upbeat stories -- that doing so can reflect back and make us feel more optimistic, ourselves -- it starts to make sense that the Hollywood studios would follow that market back when people were feeling anything but optimistic and upbeat.

    ...I suppose.

    It is kind of scary that an amoral little fuck like Mark Zuckerberg is consciously studying using the phenomenon for mass manipulation, though.

  •  Social networking=social engineering, right? nt (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    alx9090

    A true craftsman will meticulously construct the apparatus of his own demise.

    by onionjim on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 02:07:13 PM PDT

  •  It's ok 'cause it's not the NSA. (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Muskegon Critic

    We have a lot of people who claim to be all about civil liberties who are ok with invasion of privacy and unethical manipulation just as long as it is not done by the government.

    The politicians may be bought, and the system corrupt, but it is our duty to fix these things.

    by sebastianguy99 on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 02:18:45 PM PDT

  •  Idea for new experiment! (0+ / 0-)

    Maybe this same phenomenon works over the TV Machine as well.  We could test this by setting up a partisan news channel which broadcasts "news" of a certain point of view, sometimes going so far as to contrive factless stories.

    Then we could measure the effect of this news channel on people's views, emotions, and voting behavior.  It may also help to measure the effect on congress:

    Oh wait, someone already looked at this!

    Here.  Checkout what happens in 95-97, the very time when Fox News was created.

    "When I was an alien, cultures weren't opinions" ~ Kurt Cobain, Territorial Pissings

    by Subterranean on Sun Jun 29, 2014 at 02:50:06 PM PDT

  •  While kind of interesting, as a reviewer, (0+ / 0-)

    I probably wouldn't have allowed it to go to publication.  The effect size is just too miniscule to use the language they use in the article.  One of their reported effect sizes of d = .001 means that the increase in negative words when positive news was omitted was 1/1000th of a standard deviation.  Fun stats fact: Even with their sample size of 600,000+, in order to be 80% sure that that small of an effect exists in the population as a whole, a sample size of about 31 million is required.  So if their effect is the actual population effect, it's akin to a mosquito's leg affecting the drag on a race car, more or less.  It is more precise to say that transferred emotional states via social networking can have an extremely minuscule impact on others as measured by social networking statuses.  Now, to make this research really interesting, it would be fun to look at personality traits that predict such emotional contagion.  Hire me, Facebook.  

  •  George Orwell would be proud (0+ / 0-)

    Facebook may have STARTED out as 'way to reconnect' with people, but what it is NOW and how it is used NOW should give everyone pause.
    One example -- today the Huffington Post announced that starting in July, not only would you HAVE to sign in through a Facebook account in order to comment (this has been policy since January), but NOW all your comments would appear on you Facebook page -- in other words, HP will now be using the FB comment platform exclusively. Did I mention that in order to comment on HP, you have to have what is called a 'verified' FB account. Meaning they use your cell phone to determine whether you are who you say you are -- and pseudonyms are not allowed.
    The number of people who are saying they will delete their account is impressive. I don't HAVE a FB account, and every time I see something like this, I get less and less enthusiastic about getting one.

    "Free your mind and the rest will follow...."

    by midknightryder13 on Mon Jun 30, 2014 at 01:36:11 PM PDT

  •  They needed a study? (0+ / 0-)

    Facebook really could have figured this out simply by observing users in their natural state.  I had already figured this out by viewing posts from friends.  I really don't know why people have to study the obvious.

    Proverbs 25:11 A word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver.

    by Global Interest on Tue Jul 01, 2014 at 10:41:11 AM PDT

  •  All kinds of stuff you could do to throw off FB (0+ / 0-)

    The best thing you can do to thwart dataminers is to create decoy posts that throw off all their formulas and logarithms.

    For example, if you are afraid of the new trend in face recognition, take a few dozen pics of random people and tag them with your name.

    Or take a picture of your butt and tag it with Marc Zuckerberg's name. Y

  •  Pimping for Facebook (0+ / 0-)

    I've had the experience on a number of sites (the latest is something run by "Smarter Travel Media") that won't let me post a comment unless I sign on via Facebook, with which I want nothing to do.  When I asked them why they're pimping for Facebook, they answered with a straight face "since Facebook offers the most familiar environment for the greatest number of people to share ideas, and because we want to offer the simplest and most consistent user experience, we have adopted a format that requires a Facebook login in order to comment on SmarterTravel".

    Of course this means that their comments are skewed to extroverted commenters, which means they're of questionable value to me.

    Personally, I suspect there's money involved here more than "consistent user experience".  I wish I knew how to make this stop.

  •  The Social Media Trap.. (0+ / 0-)

    I gave it up over a year ago...shut down both FB and Twitter.  We all got sucked into it, I'd even go as far as to say that the government sat down with Zuckerberg and said, "now this is what we want you to do, or else".  Big Brother came to full life.  "If you don't have anything to hide, you shouldn't be upset with this".  That argument doesn't hold water.  It's the principal of it.  Homeland Security is plugged deep into social media and you'll see shortly that free speech will no longer be tolerated.  Your either with us or against us.  No thanks, I'm done with it and if your smart you'll close all your social media accounts and now that it's front page news those who would like to harm us will find other ways to do it.

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