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I wish I had been there on that fantastic July day in 169 B.C.in the Alexandrian suburb of Eleusis, when for a few brief moments the past and future were divided by a line in the sand. On one side stood the royal egomaniac Antiochus IV, whose army was just four miles from capturing the Pharoah of Egypt. Standing in his way was one old man, the Roman ambassador, Gaius Popillius, carrying a decree from “the Senate and the People of Rome”. It ordered the upstart Syrian Greek to turn his Slecuid army around, and go home. Antiochus was infuriated, and tried to buy time. He had to consult his advisers, he said. But Gaius would have none of that. Grabbing a stick he drew a circle around the King and insisted, if Antiochus stepped over the line without agreeing to turn back, it would mean war with Rome. It was the original line drawn in the sand, and for one of the few times in history, it actually worked. Antiochus went home. It came to be called the “Day of Eleusis”, and because of that day, we celebrate a holiday – just not the one you're thinking about, probably.

Antiochus was King of the Slecuid Empire, centered in Syria and stretching from India on the east and now Egypt on the west. He was called Epiphanes, “God Manifest” on his monuments, and Epimanes behind his back - “The Mad One”. And as he retreated eastward across the Sinai, he got madder and madder. Yous see, some jackass in Judea had spread a rumor that Antiochus was dead, killed in battle. Maybe the Romans had spread the story to weaken Antiochus back home, and maybe Antiochus had spread it himself, to flush out any trouble makers amongst the conquered peoples in his empire. But whoever spread it, the hottest hot head in Judea, a Jewish religious fanatic named Mattathias ben Johanan the Hasmonean, believed the rumor, and with about a thousand followers came charging out of the hills to capture the temple in Jerusalem and drive the high priest Menelaus into the wilderness
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Now, few people in Jerusalem missed Menelaus. He had become high priest because his brother Onias had been high priest before him. But when Onias had sent Menelaus to deliver the yearly taxes to Antiochus, Menelaus had included a little extra from himself, a bribe, and suddenly Onias was no longer high priest, Menelaus was. So you can see why Antiochus tended not to see the high priests of Judisiam as particularly holy, and neither did the people of Jerusalem. Menelaus slipped a little more in the public's opinion when Onias died in a tragic sword accident – bad luck. So the Jews of Jerusalem were not really sorry to see Menelaus gone.
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But Antiochus (above)  was sorry. Menelaus might be a sniveling bottom feeder, but he was the King's sniveling bottom feeder. And there was that whole “got to show them whose the boss” dynamic going on. And Antiochus had an army that had been expecting to get rich sacking Alexandria, which the Romans had put the kibosh to. So in the dog days of August 169 B.C., everything was pointing toward a very bad day for Jerusalem. And it came.
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It seems – oops - somebody had left the city gates open, and the Slecuid army marched right in, as Mattathias ben Johanana slipped out the back door. First Antiochis' soldiers stripped the Jewish temple, taking everything of value, everything not already sold to pay tribute to Antiochus, or stolen earlier by the Babylonians or the Egyptians. Really there couldn't have been that much left to take. But Antiochus took it. And then, according to the holy text, Second Macabbees, “And he commanded his soldiers to cut down relentlessly every one they met and to slay those who went into the houses.”.
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The primary non-religious source for what happened was the Jewish radical turned Roman informer, Josephus. He says that over three days Antiochus murdered 44,000 people in Jerusalem, which would have been about 10% of the population, and another 44,000 women and children were sold into slavery. Antiochus then built a citidal, which he stocked with a permanent garrison, and then he had the Jewish temple re-dedicated. On the altar where Menelaus had sacrificed goats to honor Yahweh, the Greek priests now sacrificed pigs to honor Zeus. Antiochus also issued a decree forbidding circumcision - (who was the lucky guy who got to check on that? ). It seemed the Jews had finally ticked off one King too many.
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But, a year later human nature, or maybe it was Yahweh, intervened. In 168 BC, the rising empire of Parthia captured the Afghanistan city of Heart. This was an important part of Antiochus' empire because at the time the region was called the bread basket of central Asia. And the loss of Herat also cut off Antiochus' trade routes with India. We're talking a major loss of taxes, here. So Antiochus had to turn eastward to deal with the upstart Parthians. But he did not forget the troublesome Jews to the west. He ordered his governor of Syria, a nobleman named Lysias “to conquer Judea, enslave its inhabitants, utterly destroy Jerusalem and abolish the whole nation."
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In 167 B.C. Lysias dispatched four divisions to accomplish this task, and as they marched on Jerusalem, Mattathias organized the faithful. However, because he was a religious fanatic, Mattathias insisted that everybody adhere strictly to Jewish law. That's what they were fighting for, wasn't it? Unfortunately the Slecuid army did not recognize the Jewish sabbath, and on a Saturday they attacked a Jewish village. Following the law, the villagers refused to do any work on the sabbath, even refusing to lift a weapon to defend themselves, and all 1,000 were slaughtered. After this Mattathias was replaced as leader of the revolt by his son, Judah. And under him, the Jews decided to fight, twenty-four, seven.
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It turns out the new Jewish leader, Judah ben Mattathias was pretty good at it. In 166 B.C. Judah fell on the Slecuid supply base at Emmaus, killing its 3,000 man garrison, capturing a huge cache of weapons and food, and forcing half the Seleucid army to retreat. A year later he beat the other half of the Slecuid army at Beth-zur, forcing them, again, to retreat. It was battles like this that earned him the nickname of Judah the Hammer, or in Hebrew, Judah Maccabees. Shortly after this victory, word again arrived that Antioschus was dead. Except this time he really was. He'd been in Babylon, struggling to prepare a counter attack against the Parthians, when he suddenly dropped dead. He might have been sick, but I think it more likely, he'd been poisoned. In any case, his young son, Antiochus V, now inherited the empire.
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Lysias immediately had himself declared Antioschus V guardian, which put the Governor in charge of the entire empire. He ordered an end to efforts to retake Heart, and in 165 B.C. he marched for a third time on Jerusalem. Third times the charm, right? This time Lysias came by the southern road, catching the Hammer off guard. This time Lysias actually laid siege to Jerusalem. This time it looked as if the clock had run out for the Jews. This time there was nobody to save them. And then out of nowhere appeared a guy named Phillip, (the royal governor of Babylon, actually), who had been with Antioschus IV when he died. And Phillip claimed that Antioschus IV on his deathbed had asked him, Phillip, to raise his son, Antioschus V. If true, that made Phillip the regent, not Lysias. Lysias did not believe a word of it. Would you? But he still had to deal with Phi lip’s army. And one morning Judah looked out from walls of Jerusalem, and saw...nobody. The entire Slecuid army had mysteriously disappeared. It was a miracle.
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Judah Maccabees ordered a a new altar built for the temple, and declared 8 days of “sacrifice and songs” for the re-dedication. The pigs were out, Yahweh was back in. There was only one problem. Tradition said that the temple menorah lamps had to burn on the new altar every night, all night, during the celebration. But there was only enough oil for one night. What to do?
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Now if it was me, I would have ordered the nine lamps on the menorah to be publicly lit at sundown each night, as usual. But then, after the faithful had gone home, the priests would quietly extinguish the lamps. This way, instead of burning through all the oil in one eight hour winter's night, the lamps would burn for an hour each night, for eight nights. And it is tradition for the lamps or candles to burn for only half an hour after sunset. And I think that maybe that was what the Hammer did. But then, I am a non-believer. And priest are in the business of believing, even in miracles. And the truth is, miracles don't happen without a little help from somebody. Who that help comes from depends on who and what you believe in.
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It was the first Hanukkah, the first festival of the lights. Two thousand years later it is not a very important Jewish holiday, and about the only one in which women play a leading role. Each night a woman first lights the “shamash”, the attendant candle or lamp. This is the only one that is used to illuminate the ritual. Then on each successive night , the shamash is used to light further candles, adding one each night, which are displayed in a window or an exterior door, “to illuminate the house outside” the home. And as they do so, the women recite the Hanukkah prayer.
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“We light these lights for the miracles and the wonders, for the redemption and the battles that you made for our forefathers, in those days at this season, through your holy priests. During all eight days of Hanukkah these lights are sacred, and we are not permitted to make ordinary use of them except for to look at them in order to express thanks and praise to Your great Name for Your miracles, Your wonders and Your salvations.”
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Lysias defeated Philip in 163 B.C.. But in 162 B.C. He was defeated by Demetrius I, who was Antiochus IV's older brother and Antiochus V's uncle. Demetrius had replaced Antiochus as the official hostage in Rome, and when their father died, Antiochus had grabbed the crown. So this was payback. Demetrius executed both Lysias, and the boy king Antiochus V. Demetrius tried to reconquer the Jews, but fighting Maccabees priests held him off for ten years, until Demetrius was killed by a new usurper in 150 B.C. And that was the end of Secluid empire.
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The next empire to come marching down the coast road of Judea would be the Romans. And they the Jews would have their own problems, strongly reminiscent of the ones the Jews and Seculid's had shared. They say, some people never learn. But I think, most people never learn.
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