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It’s an uphill battle for girls who like science.  This was expressed too clearly during a JPL presentation at my local library this past Saturday.

I and my husband attended the program, mainly because the presenter (no, I do not remember his name) promised new pictures from Curiosity (these pictures did not materialize, and I was disappointed).  The presentation targeted a general audience, and the presenter was an ex-science teacher with an amiable style and infectious laughter.  His enthusiasm for his subject was obvious.

There were several people at the event, and two children, one boy, one girl, with their respective parents, sat in front.  Both were excited to be there.  Both eagerly raised their hands when the presenter asked questions.  Both did not correctly answer every question they thought they knew the answer to.  And that is where the similarities ended.

The presenter called on the boy far more frequently than the girl.  He claimed to call on whoever raised their hand first, but that was not the case.  He applauded the boy and heaped praised on him for answering simple questions.  He even got the audience to clap for him.  He called the boy bright.  When the girl answered questions, he thanked her for the answer and continued.  He never applauded her answers, and tended to shy away from her by the end of the talk because she was giving more sophisticated answers than the boy.

How?  One question in particular clearly pointed out the difference.  When the presenter asked how one might be able to tell whether this certain picture was taken on Earth or on Mars, the girl answered first and pointed out that grass grew in the picture, so it must be Earth.  The presenter semi-stammered and said that was correct, but not the answer most people gave.  The boy piped up and said the rock was not red, and the man congratulated him on the answer.  

And so it went.  The little girl persevered but was only thanked for her answers, while the boy was applauded for his--to the point that, by the end of the presentation, he made a "Well everyone knows that" remark to the little girl that made me wince and made his dad lean over to speak to him, hopefully about attitude.  We left before the audience asked questions, mainly because I was fuming at the little girl’s treatment.  I immediately regretted not speaking up after her answers and telling her that she did a good job—and I should have.  That might have clued the presenter to the fact he treated the two differently.  I might have gotten some applause for her, since she, too, deserved it.  Don’t get me wrong—it was wonderful to see the boy excited about the subject.  It's wonderful to see any child excited about science. All I wanted was the presenter to encourage the girl in the same manner that he encouraged the boy.

If a little girl can’t even be treated the same as a little boy in a generalized presentation on outer space, how can they expect to find acceptance in the sciences when they become older?  Remember, the presenter once taught high school science—and I wonder if he treated those boys and girls in the same manner as he treated the two children in his audience on Saturday.

Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 7:56 AM PT: UPDATE: Since I answered this question several times in the comments but they seemed to have gotten lost: JPL stands for Jet Propulsion Laboratory.  

Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 7:58 AM PT: Thanks for the rescue and rec!

Originally posted to shiobe on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 05:09 PM PST.

Also republished by Feminism, Pro-Feminism, Womanism: Feminist Issues, Ideas, & Activism and Community Spotlight.

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  •  Tip Jar (250+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
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  •  I hope you run into that science teacher again (95+ / 0-)

    so you can point out how he treated the two differently, saying that both you and your  husband noticed. He might not believe you if you just say you did, since you are a woman so "might be biased or imagining things".

    Most teachers don't do it for money. He may need to know he's doing this.

    If he did it here he does it in his classes. Every year he must devalue girls. Probably hundreds in his career were shown what they say is less valuable than boys. So very sad

    thanks for sharing.

  •  This is hard to hear. It's not surprising though. (24+ / 0-)

    We are all a product of the biases our culture holds dear. Worse, it is very difficult to even realize what we are doing.

    Thank you for writing this.

    Poverty = politics.

    by Renee on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 05:56:31 PM PST

  •  I guess I'm supposed to know (29+ / 0-)

    what JPL is.

    We decided to move the center farther to the right by starting the whole debate from a far-right position to begin with. - Former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay

    by denise b on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 06:42:25 PM PST

    •  Thank you! (26+ / 0-)

      I'm a scientist (biologist) and I had no idea.  This is an important topic and a great diary and not knowing this piece of information was quite distracting.

      "To see both sides of a quarrel, is to judge with hate or alarm" - Richard Thompson

      by matching mole on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 05:02:33 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  Nice slogan (9+ / 0-)

        But a line has to be drawn somewhere.  The author has to assume some base level of understanding and knowledge, lest he or she end up having to define every word used in the piece, like "Mars", "scientist", and "Curiosity".

        •  It's an important element in the story, and it's (9+ / 0-)

          not universal knowledge.  One can have a strong interest in science and science education without necessarily knowing "JPL" off the top of your head - someone focused on biology wouldn't run across it in many publications.  It's not much in the populare press these days, unlike "Mars", "scientist", and "Curiosity".

        •  You spent too long in the military (1+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:

          Know what I mean, Lieutenant?

            •  This is what I was referring to (0+ / 0-)

              With no mean feelings, Lt Powers ...
              I just think this is funny. ;-)

              J3  Director(ate) of Operations
              J4  Logistics Directorate
              J5  Director(ate) of Plans, Policy, and Programs
              J6  (1) Director(ate) of Command, Control, Communications; (2) Director(ate) of Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Systems
              J7  Joint Operational Plans Staff
              J8  Director(ate) of Resource Management
              JA  Judge Advocate (General)
              JAADS  Joint Allied Air Defense System
              JAAT  Joint Air Attack Team
              JAC  Joint Analysis Center
              JACC/CP  Joint Airborne Communications Center/Command Post
              JAD  Joint Assessment Data
              JAEIC  Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee
              JAG  Judge Advocate General
              JAI  Joint Administrative Instruction
              JAIEG  Joint Atomic Information Exchange Group
              JAIS  Japan Air Intelligence System
              JAIS-PAC  Joint Area Information system-USPACOM
              JAMIP  Joint Analytic Model Improvement Program
              JAN  Joint Army-Navy
              JANAF  Joint Army, Navy, Air Force Publication
              JANAP  Joint Army/Navy Publication
              JAO  Joint Area of Operations
              JAOC  Joint Air Operations Center
              JAOP  Joint Air Operations Plan
              JAPC  Joint Attrition and Penetration Committee
              JAR  JIC Analysis Report
              JARCC  Joint Air Reconnaissance Control Center
              JARIC  (1) Joint Aerial Reconnaissance Intelligence Center; (2) Joint Air Reconnaissance Interpretation Center (UK)
              JAROC  (B) Joint Allied Refugee Operations Center (Berlin)
              JARP  Joint Aerospace Reserve Program
              JASDF  Japanese Air Self-Defense Forces
              JASORS  Joint Advanced Special Operations Radio System
              JASPO  Joint Airborne SIGINT Program Office
              JASS  Joint Airborne SIGINT System
              JAST  Joint Advanced Strike Technology Program
              JATCCCS  Joint Advanced Tactical C3 System
              JAWS  (1) Joint Analytical Workstation; (2) Joint Advanced Weapons System; (3) JDISS-Army Workstation
              JBS  (1) Joint Base Station; (2) Joint Broadcast Service
              J2C  CIA Liaison
              JC2WC  Joint C2 Warfare Center
              JCAT  (1) Joint Crisis Action Team; (2) Joint Crisis Analysis Tool
              JCC  Joint Coordination Center
              JCCC  Joint Communications Control Center
              JCCOC  Joint Communications & Control Operational Concept
              JCCWC  Joint Command and Control Warfare Center
              JCET   Joint/Combined Exercises for Training
              JCEOI  Joint CEOI
              JCF  Joint Communications Facility
              JCISB  Joint Counterintelligence Support Branch
              JCISOC  Joint CI Staff Officer’s Course
              JCMC  (1) Joint Crisis Management Capability; (2) Joint Crisis Management Center
              JCMEC  Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center
              JCMO  Joint Collection Management Office
              JCMOTF  Joint Civil Military Operations Task Force
              JCMPO  Joint Cruise Missile Project Office
              JCMST  Joint Collection Management Support Tool (renamed JCMT)
              JCMT  Joint Collection Management Tool
              JCNJSIC  Center Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Base (CMAFB) Node
              JCNICC  Joint Counternarcotics Intelligence Coordination Center
              JCP  Joint Congressional Committee on Printing
              JCPES  Joint Chiefs Planning and Execution System
              JCPX  Joint Command Post Exercise
              JCRC  Joint Casualty Resolution Center
              JCS  Joint Chiefs of Staff
              JCSAN  JCS Alert Network
              JCSAR  Joint Combat Search and Rescue
              JCSE  (1) Joint Communications Support Element; (2) Joint Contingency Support Element
              JCSM  Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum
              JCSS  (1) Japan Combat Support System; (2) Joint Communications Support Squadron
              JCTG-ME  Joint Technical Coordinating Group for Munitions Effectiveness
              J2D  DIA Liaison
              JDA  (1) Joint Deployment Agency; (2) Japan Defense Agency; (3) Joint Duty Assignment
              JDAC  Joint District Area Command
              JDAL  Joint Duty Assignment List
              JDAM   Joint Direct Attack Munition
              JDC  Joint Debriefing Center
              J-DEC  JICPAC-Detachment Japan
              JDEC  Joint Document Exploitation Center
              JDF  Joint Development Facility
              JDGW  Joint Digital Geopositioning Workstation
              JDIA  Joint Digital Intelligence Assessment
              JDIPC  Joint Deployable Imagery Production Center
              JDISS  (1) Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System; (2) Joint Defense Intelligence Support Services
              JDISS-C  Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System-CENTCOM
              JDISS-E  JDISS-EUCOM
              JDISS-S  Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System-SOCOM or
              JDIVS  Joint Deployable Intelligence Video/Data System
              JDMAG  Joint Deployable Maintenance Analysis Group
              JDS  Joint Deployment System
              JDSS  Joint Decision Support System
              JDSIR  Joint Deployment System Incident Reporting System
              JDSSC  Joint Data System Support Center
              JEAP  (1) Joint Electronic Analysis Program; (2) Joint Electronic Analysis Position
              JEC  Joint Economic Committee
              JECC(G)  Joint Exercise Control Center (Group)
              JECG  Joint Exercise Control Group
              JECM  Joint Electronic Countermeasures
              JEEP  Joint Emergency Evacuation Plan
              JEIO  Joint Engineering and Interoperability Organization
              JEFPROS  JAC EUCOM Force Protection Summary
              JEIR  JAC EUCOM Intelligence Review
              JEL  Joint Electronic Library
              JEM  Joint Exercise Manual
              JES  JDISS Embedded Support
              JESS  Joint Exercise Support System
              JET  JWICS Earth Terminal
              JETDS  Joint Electronics Designation System
              JEWC  Joint Electronic Warfare Center
              JFACC  Joint Force Air Component Commander
              JFC  (1) Joint Fusion Center; (2) Joint Force Commander
              JFFC  Joint Force Fires Coordinator
              JFFSC  Joint Force Fire Support Coordinator
              JFI  Joint Force Integrator
              JFIC  Joint Force Interdiction Coordinator
              JFITL  Joint Force Integrator Task List
              JFK CTRMA  John F. Kennedy Center for Military Assistance
              JFLCC  Joint Force Land Component Commander
              JLOTS  Joint Logistics Over the Shore
              JFM  Joint Force Memorandum
              JFMCC  Joint Force Maritime Component Commander
              JFMO  Joint Frequency Management Office
              JFSOCC  Joint Force Special Operations Component Commander
              JGITSS  Joint General Intelligence Training System Subarchitecture
              JGSDF  Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces
              JIATF  Joint InterAgency Task Force
              JIATF-E  Joint InterAgency Task Force - East
              JIATF-W  Joint InterAgency Task Force - West
              JIB  Joint Intelligence Bureau (Commonwealth Countries)
              JIC  (1) Joint Intelligence Center; (2) Joint Interrogation Center; (3) Joint Intelligence Cell
              JIC-E  Joint Intelligence Center-Europe
              JIC-SOUTH  Joint Intelligence Center-U.S. SOUTHCOM
              JIC-2000  Designation of JICSOUTH upon movement to CONUS
              JICEUR  Joint Intelligence Center Europe
              JICPAC  Joint Intelligence Center Pacific
              JICREP  Joint Intelligence Center Report
              JICTRANS  Joint Intelligence Center for Transportation
              JIEO  Joint Interoperability Engineering Organization (DISA)
              JIEP  Joint Intelligence Estimate for Planning
              JIF  Joint Interrogation Facility
              JIFF  Joint Interdiction of Follow-on Forces
              JIIKS  Joint Imagery Interpretation Key Structure
              JIIM  Joint Intelligence Information Management
              JILE  Joint Intelligence Liaison Element
              JIM  JESS Intelligence Model
              JINTACCS  Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command and Control Systems
              JINTC  Joint Intelligence Task Force
              JIO  Joint Intelligence Organization
              JIOC  Joint Intelligence Operations Center
              JIPC  Joint Imagery Production Center
              JIPTL  Joint Integrated Prioritized Target List
              JISA  Joint Intelligence Support Architecture
              JISAD  JTF Intelligence Support Architecture Document
              JISC  (1) Joint Intelligence Support Center; (2) Joint Intelligence Support Concept
              JISE  Joint Intelligence Support Element
              JISI  Joint Intelligence System Integration
              JISS  Japan Intelligence Support System
              JITAP  Joint Intelligence Training Activity Pacific
              JITC  Joint Interoperability Test Center (DISA)
              JITF  Joint Integration Testing Facility
              JIVA  Joint Intelligence Virtual Architecture
              JLA  Joint Logistics Assessment
              JLARG  Joint Logistics Assessment Review Group
              JL-COE  Joint Logistics Center of Excellence
              JLD  Joint Liaison Detachment
              JLE  Jammer Locator Electronics
              JLMIS  Joint Logistics Management Information System
              JLOTS  Joint Logistics Over the Shore
              JLPPG  Joint Logistics and Personnel Policy and Guidance
              JLRC  Joint Logistics Readiness Center
              J4/LRC  Joint Logistics Readiness Center
              JLREID  Joint Long-Range Estimating Intelligence Document (JSPS)
              JLRSA  Joint Long-Range Strategic Appraisal
              JLSP  Joint Logistics Steering Panel
              JM  Joint Mission
              JMA  (1) Joint Mobilization Augmentation; (2) Joint Mission Analysis
              JMAT  Joint Mobility Assistance Team
              JMC  Joint Movement Center
              JMCC  (1) Joint MC&G Coordination Center; (2) Joint Mobile Command Center
              JMCIS  Joint Maritime Command Information System
              JMEM  Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual
              JMENS  Joint Mission Element Needs Statement
              JMETL  (1) Joint Mission Essential Target List; (2) Joint Mission Essential Task List
              JMI  JTIDS Modular AOC Integration System
              JMIC  Joint Military Intelligence College
              JMICS  JWICS Mobile Integrated Communications System
              JMIE  Joint Maritime Information Element
              JMIE/JEM  JMIE Support System and Modernization
              JMINI  Joint UHF MILSATCOM Network Integrated
              JMIP  Joint Military Intelligence Program
              JMISE  Joint Military Intelligence Support Element
              JMITC  Joint Military Intelligence Training Center
              JMNS  Joint Mission Needs Statement
              JMO  Joint Management Office
              JMOCC  Joint Mobile Operations Command Center
              JMP  (1) Joint Manpower Program; (2) Joint Mobilization Program
              JMPAB  Joint Material Priorities Allocation Board
              JMPP  Joint Munitions Production Panel
              JMRR  Joint Military Readiness Review
              JMSDF  Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
              JMSIP  Joint Modeling and Simulation Integration Program
              JMSNS  Justification for Major System New Start
              JMST  Joint Management Support Tool
              JMTB  Joint Military Transportation Board
              JMTG  (1) Joint Military Terminology Group; (2) Joint Master Training Guide
              JMTK  Joint Mapping Tool Kit
              JNACC  Joint Nuclear Accident Coordinating Center
              JNAF  Yugoslavia National Air Force
              JNC  Jet Navigation Chart
              JNC-A  Jet Navigation Chart-Air
              JNIDS  (1) Joint National Intelligence Dissemination System; (2) Joint National Intelligence Development Staff
              JNPE  Joint Nuclear Planning Element
              JOA  Joint Operations Area
              JOC  Joint Operations Center
              JOC/INT  Joint Operations Center/Intelligence Team
              JOG  Joint Operations Graphic
              JOG-A  Joint Operations Graphic-Air
              JOG-C  Joint Operations Graphic-Combined
              JOG-G  Joint Operations Graphic-Ground
              JOG-R  Joint Operations Graphic-Radar
              JOIC  Joint Operational Intelligence Center/Cell
              JOIN  Joint Operations Intelligence Network
              JOINT REDTRAIN  Joint Readiness Training
              Joint STARS  Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System
              JOP  Joint Operating Procedure
              JOPES  Joint Operations Planning and Execution System
              JOPS  Joint Operational Planning System
              JOS  Joint Operational Stocks
              JOSE  Joint Operations Support Element
              JOTS  Joint Operational Tactical System
              JP  (1) Jet Petroleum; (2) Joint Publication
              JPAM  Joint Program Assessment Memorandum
              JPAT  Joint Planning and Assistance Team
              JPD  Joint Planning Document
              JPEA  Joint Planning and Exercise Activity
              JPEC  Joint Planning and Execution Community
              JPL  Jet Propulsion Laboratory

              and more jargon where these came from!

              Military Acronyms and Abbreviations - Acronym Finder
              This site contains a comprehensive list of U.S military acronyms and abbreviations.

              A2  Air Force Intelligence Staff Officer (component level)
              AA  (1) Attack Assessment; (2) Attrition Analysis; (3) Antiaircraft; (4) Avenue of Approach; (5) Automatic Associator
              AAA  (1) Antiaircraft Artillery; (2) Air Avenue of Approach
              AAAOB  Antiaircraft Artillery Order of Battle
              AABNCP  Advanced Airborne National Command Post
              AAC  Alaskan Air Command
              AACB  Aeronautics and Astronautics Coordinating Board
              AACE  Army Alternate Command and Control Element
              AACOMS  Army Area Communications System
              AACS  Attitude and Antenna Control Subsystem
              AAD  Airborne Assault Division
              AADC  (1) Army Air Defense Command; (2) Area Air Defense Commander
              AADCCS  Area Air Defense Command and Control System
              AADP  Area Air Defense Plan
              AADS  Antiaircraft Defense System
              AAE  Army Acquisition Executive
              AAF  Army Airfield
              AAFES  Army & Air Force Exchange Service
              AAFIF  Automated Air Facilities Information File
              AAG  Army Artillery Group
              AAI  Air-to-Air Intercept
              AAIFF  Air-to-Air Identification Friend or Foe
              AAM  Air-to-Air Missile
              AAO  Analysis of the Area of Operations
              AAR  (1) Active Array Radar; (2) After Action Report
              AAS  Analyst Automation Segment
              AASLT  Air Assault
              AATS  Automated Architecture Tool Suite
              AAVS  Aerospace Audiovisual Service
              AAW  Anti Air Warfare
              AAWC  Anti Air Warfare Commander
              AB  Air Base
              AB2  Air Battle Command System (ABCS) Brigade and Below
              ABC  Airborne Corps
              ABCCC  Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center
              ABCOMM  Alternate/Backup Communications
              ABCS  Army Battle Command System
              ABIC  Army Battlefield Interface Concept
              ABIT  (1) Airborne Imagery Transmission; (2) Airborne Information Transmission Program
              ABM  (1) Antiballistic Missile; (2) Automatic Building Machines
              ABMA  Army Ballistic Missile Agency
              ABN/Abn  Airborne
              ABNCP  (1) Airborne Command Post; (2) Airborne National Command Post
              ABR  Available Bit Rate
              ABW  Air Base Wing
              AC  (1) Air Crew; (2) Active Component; (3) Air Conditioning; (4) Alternating Current
              A/C  Aircraft
              A2C2  Army Airspace Communications and Control
              AC-130  AFSOF Spectre Gunship
              AC2SMAN  Alaskan Command and Control System Military utomated Network
              AC2MP  Army Command and Control Master Plan
              ACA  (1) Alternate Command Authority; (2) Airspace Control Authority
              ACAAM  Air Courses of Action Assessment Model
              ACACS  Army Command and Area Communications System
              ACAT  Acquisition Category
              ACC  (1) Access Control Center; (2) Air Control Center; (3) Aviation omponent Commander, (4) Air Component Commander, (5) Air Combat Command; (6) Army Component Command
              ACCB  Army Configuration Control Board
              ACCHAN  Allied Command Channel
              ACCIS  Allied Command and Control Information System
              ACCISS  (1) Automated Command and Control Intelligence upport System; (2) Alaskan C2 Intelligence Support System
              ACCO  Army Central Control Office
              ACCS  (1) Airborne Command and Control Squadron; (2) Airborne Command and Control System; (3) Advanced Communications Control System
              ACDA  Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
              ACDS  Advanced Combat Direction system
              ACDUTRA  Active Duty Training
              ACE  (1) Allied Command, Europe; (2) Advance Communications Element; (3) Aviation Combat Element; (4) Analysis Control
              Element; (5) Assistant Corps of Engineers; 6) Airborne Command Element
              ACES  Automated Command and Control Evaluation System
              ACEVAL  Air Combat Evaluation
              ACF  Alternate Command Facility
              ACFT  Aircraft
              ACI  Airborne Controlled Intercept
              ACINT  Acoustic Intelligence
              ACIS  Arms Control Intelligence Staff
              ACL  Access Control List
              ACLANT  Allied Commander Atlantic
              ACO  (1) Access Control Officer; (2) Airspace Control Officer
              ACOC  (1) Area Communications Operations Center; (2) Air Combat Operations Center
              ACOM  Atlantic Command
              ACOS  Assistant Chief of Staff
              ACOS/I  Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (Navy)
              ACOUSTINT  Acoustical Intelligence
              ACP  (1) Alternate Command Post; (2) Assault CP; (3) Allied Communications Publications; (4) Airspace Control Plan
              ACPERS  Army Civilian Personnel System
              ACQ  Acquisition
              ACR  (1) Armored Cavalry Regiment; (2) Automated Change Recognition
              ACS  (1) Afloat Correlation System; (2) Aerial Common Sensor; (3) AUTODIN Switching Center; (4) Airborne COMINT System; (5) Assistant Chief of Staff
              ACS/I  Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence
              ACSA  Allied Communications Security Agency
              ACSB  Amphibious Contingency Support Briefs
              ACSC  Air Command and Staff College
              ACSI  Assistant Chief of Staff Intelligence, HQ USAF
              ACT  (1) Air Combat Tactics; (2) Advanced Concepts and Technology Program
              ACTD  Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
              ACTEDS  Army Civilian Training, Education, & Development System
              ACTS  (1) Advanced Communications Technology; (2) Advanced Communications Technology Satellite
              ACUS  (1) Area Common User Systems; (2) Army Common User System
              ACV  (1) Armored Command Vehicle; (2) Air Cushion Vehicle; (3) Armored Combat Vehicle
              ACW  (1) Aircraft Control and Warning; (2) Anticarrier Warfare; (3) Air Control Wing
              AD  (1) Air Defense; (2) Destroyer Tender; (3) Air Division; 4) Artillery Division; (5) Active Duty
              A/D  Analog/Digital
              ADA  Air Defense Artillery
              ADACP  Alcohol & Drug Abuse Control Program
              ADAPCP  Alcohol & Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Program
              ADAPT  Automated Decisionmaking and Program Timeline
              ADARS  Army Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement
              ADATS  Air Defense Antitank System
              ADBT  Advanced Data Base Technology
              ADC  (1) Aide-de-Camp; (2) Air Direction Center; (3) Assistant Division Commander; (4) Air Data Computer; (5) Air Defense Coordinator
              ADCAP  Advanced Capability
              ADCC  Air Defense Command Center
              ADCCP  Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures
              ADCOM  (1) Aerospace Defense Command (now SPACECOM); (2) Administrative Command
              ADCON  Administrative Control
              ADCSOPS  Assistant Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans
              ADD  (1) Air Defense District; (2) Assistant Deputy Director (DIA)
              ADDIS  Advanced Deployable Digital Imagery System
              ADDISS  Advanced Deployable Digital Imagery Support System
              ADDO  Associate Deputy Director of Operations
              ADDO(MA)  Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Military Affairs (DIA)
              ADDO(MS)  Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Military Support (NSA)
              ADDS  Army Data Distribution System
              ADDU  Additional Duty
              ADE  (1) Audio Deception Emitter; (2) Aerial Delivery Equipment
              ADEW  Airborne Directed Energy Weapons
              ADF  Automatic Direction Finding
              ADFH  Air Deployable Forward Headquarters
              ADG  Deperming Ship
              ADI  Air Defense Initiative
              ADIC  Aerospace Defense Intelligence Center
              ADIEC  Army Deployable Imagery Exploitation Capability
              ADIO  Additional Duty Intelligence Officer
              ADISS  Advanced Defense Intelligence Support System
              ADIZ  Air Defense Identification Zone
              ADL  (1) Ada Design Language; (2) Armistice Demarcation Line
              ADLP  Advanced Datalink Protocol
              ADM  (1) Atomic Demolition Munitions; (2) Advanced Development Model; (3) Acquisition Decision Memorandum Admin Administration/Administrative
              ADN  ACE DGZ Number (NATO)
              ADNET  Antidrug Network
              ADOC  Air Defense Operations Center
              ADP  (1) Automated Data Processing; (2) Airborne Data Processing
              ADP-MIS  Automated Data Processing Management Information System
              ADP-T  (1) Automated Data Processing and Associated Telecommunications; (2) Automated Data Processing and
              Associated Training
              ADPCM  Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation
              ADPE  Automated Data Processing Equipment
              ADPS  (1) ASARS Deployable Processing Station; (2) Automated Data Processing System
              ADPSSM  Automated Data Processing Systems Security Manual
              ADPSSO  ADP Special Security Officer
              ADPSSP  Automated Data Processing System Security Program
              ADRG  Advanced Digitized Raster Graphics
              ADRI  Arc Digital Raster Imagery
              ADS  (1) Automated Data System; (2) Air Defense Sector; (3) Airlift Defensive System; (4) Acoustic SOF Detection
              System; (5) Advanced Distributed Simulation
              ADSS  Aerospace Defense Systems Subcommittee
              ADSTAR  Advanced Document Storage & Retrieval System
              ADSW  Active Duty for Special Work
              ADT  (1) Active Duty For Training; (2) Additional Duty Training
              ADTLP  Army Doctrine and Training Literature Program
              ADTOC  Air Defense Tactical Operations Center
              ADTS  Adversary Threat Squadron
              ADV  Advance(d)
              ADVAL  Air Defense Evaluation Test
              ADVON  Advanced Echelon
              ADW  Air Defense Warning
              ADX  Air Defense Exercise
              ADZ  Air Defense Zone
              AE  (1) Atomic Energy; (2) Assault Echelon; (3) Ammunition Ship; (4) Aerial Exploitation; Application Entity
              AEAO  Airborne Emergency Action Officer
              AEB  Aerial Exploitation Battalion
              AEC  ASARS Exploitation Cell
              AEDS  Atomic Energy Detection System
              AEELS  (1) Automatic ELINT Emitter Location System; (2) Airborne ELINT Emitter Location System
              AEICC  Area Emergency Information Coordination Center
              AEM  Missile Tender
              AEMS  Automated Edge Measurement System
              AEN  Arbitrary ELINT Notation
              AEOS  Advanced Electro-Optical Sensor
              AEROFLOT  Former Soviet Union Civil Airline
              AES  (1) Atomic Energy Site; (2) Airborne ELINT System
              AESC  Aerospace Environmental Support Center
              AETC  Air Education and Training Command
              AETCAE  Army Europe Technical Control and Analysis Element
              AEV  Armored Engineer Vehicle
              AEW  Airborne Early Warning
              AEW&C  Airborne Early Warning and Control
              AF  (1) Air Force; (2) Armed Forces; (3) Stores Ship
              AFAC  Airborne Forward Air Controller
              AF ACSI  Air Force Chief of Staff Intelligence
              AFAITC  Armed Forces Air Intelligence Training Center (Goodfellow AFB, TX).
              AFAL  Air Force Armament Laboratory
              AFAMPE  USAF Automated Message Processing Exchange
              AFAMRL  Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory
              AFAP  Artillery-Fired Atomic Projectile
              AFARN  Air Force Air Request Net
              AFAS  Advanced Field Artillery System
              AFATDS  Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System
              AFB  (1) Air Force Base; (2) Airframe Bulletin; (3) Antifriction Bearing
              AFC  (1) Automatic Frequency Control; (2) All-source Fusion Center (Marine Corps)
              AFC4A  USAF Command, Control, Communications and Computer Agency
              AFCA  Air Force Collection Assets
              AFCC  (1) Air Force Communications Command; (2) Air Force Component Command
              AFCEA  Armed Forces Communications Electronics Association
              AFCENT  Allied Forces Central Europe (NATO)
              AFCS  (1) Automatic Flight Control System; (2) Army Facility Component System
              AFCSC  Air Force Cryptologic Support Center
              AFDB  Auxiliary Floating Drydock (large)
              AFDD  Air Force Doctrine Document
              AFDIGS  Air Force Digital Graphic Systems
              AFDL  Auxiliary Floating Drydock (small)
              AFDM  Auxiliary Floating Drydock (medium)
              AFDT  AEELS Fixed Downlink Terminal
              AFEOC  Air Force Emergency Operations Center
              AFEWC  Air Force Electronic Warfare Center
              AFFIS  Airfield Facilities Information System
              AFFOR  Air Force (Component) Forces
              AFGCCS  USAF Global Command and Control System
              AFGL  Air Force Geophysics Laboratory
              AFGWC  Air Force Global Weather Central
              AFGWC/FNOC  Air Force Global Weather Center/Fleet Numerical perations Center
              AFGWS  Air Force Ground Weather Stations
              AFIA  Air Force Intelligence Agency
              AFIC  (1) Air Force Information Center; (2) Air Force Intelligence Command; (3) Air Force Intelligence Center
              AFICE  Air Forces Iceland
              AFICP  Air Force Intelligence Communications Plan
              AFIES  Armed Forces Imagery Exploitation System
              AFIISP  Air Force Intelligence Information Systems Plan
              AFIO  Association of Former Intelligence Officers
              AFIP  Air Force Intelligence Plan
              AFIS  Air Force Intelligence Service/Study
              AFISA  Air Force Intelligence Support Agency
              AFIT  Air Force Institute of Technology
              AFITC  Air Force Intelligence Training Center
              AFIWC  Air Force Information Warfare Center
              AFLAN  AFSOC Local/Wide Area Network
              AFLANT  U.S. Air Forces, Atlantic
              AFLC  Air Force Logistics Command
              AFLE  Air Force Liaison Element
              AFLO  Air Force Liaison Office
              AFM  Air Force Manual
              AFMD/GF  Air Forces of the Military District/Group of Forces
              AFMC  Air Force Materiel Command
              AFMIC  Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center
              AFMPC  Air Force Military Personnel Center
              AFMSIS  Air Force Modeling and Simulation Information System
              AFMSS  Air Force Mission Support System
              AFNET  (1) Air Force Network; (2) Air Force Data Network
              AFNORTH  Allied Forces Northern Europe (NATO)
              AFNORTHWEST  (1) Allied Forces Northwest Europe (NATO); (2) Air Forces Northwest Region
              AFOC  Air Force Operations Center
              AFOE  Assault Follow-On Echelon
              AFOSI  Air Force Office of Special Investigations
              AFOSP  Air Force Office of Security Police
              AFOSR  Air Force Office of Scientific Research
              AFOTEC  Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center
              AFR  (1) Air Force Reserve; (2) Air Force Regulation
              AFRES  Air Force Reserve
              AFS  (1) Air Force Station; (2) Combat Stores Ship
              AFSAA  Air Force Studies and Analyses Agency
              AFSAC  Air Force Special Activities Center
              AFSAT  Air Force Satellite
              AFSATCOM  Air Force Satellite Communications System
              AFSC  (1) Air Force Systems Command; (2) Air Force Specialty Code; (3) Armed Forces Staff College
              AFSCOORD  Assistant Fire Support Coordinator
              AFSCF  Air Force Satellite Control Facility
              AFSCN  Air Force Satellite Control Network
              AFSIP  Air Force Satellite Intelligence Program
              AFSOB  Air Force Special Operations Base
              AFSOC  Air Force Special Operations Command
              AFSOD  Air Force Special Operations Detachment
              AFSOE  Air Force Special Operations Element
              AFSOF  Air Force Special Operations Forces
              AFSOS  Air Force Special Operations School
              AFSOUTH  Allied Forces Southern Europe (NATO)
              AFSOUTHCOM  Air Force Southern Command
              AFSPACECOM  Air Force Space Command
              AFSPC  Air Force Space Command
              AFSPCIP  Air Force Space Command Intelligence Plan
              AFSPOC  Air Force Space Operations Center
              AFSSE  Air Force Space Surveillance Element
              AFSST  Air Force Space Support Team
              AFSTC  Air Force Space Technology Center
              AFTAC  Air Force Technical Applications Center
              AFTACIES  Air Force Tactical Imagery Exploitation System
              AFTF   Air Force Task Force
              AFTFWC  Air Force Tactical Fighter Weapons Center
              AFV  Armored Fighting Vehicle
              AF/VC  Air Force Vice Chief of Staff
              AFWAL  Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory
              AFWARNS  Air Force Warning System
              AFWCCS  Air Force Wing Command and Control System
              AFWL  Air Force Weapons Laboratory
              AG  (1) Adjutant General; (2) Miscellaneous Auxiliary Ship
              AGARD  Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (NATO)
              AGB  Icebreaker
              AGC  Automatic Gain Control
              AGCCS  Army’s Global Command and Control System
              AGDS  Deep Submergence Support Ship
              AGE  Experimental Auxiliary
              AGEF  Frigate Research Ship
              AGEH  Experimental Auxiliary (Hydrofoil)
              AGER  Intelligence Research Ship
              AGES  Advanced Ground Exploitation System
              AGF  Miscellaneous Command Ship
              AGHS  Patrol Combatant Support Ship
              AGI  Intelligence Collection Ship
              AGL  (1) Buoy Tender; (2) Above Ground Level
              AGM  (1) Air-to-Ground Missile; (2) Missile Range Instrumentation Ship
              AGMR  Major Communications Relay Ship
              AGMS  Armored Ground Mobility System
              AGOR  Oceanographic Research Ship
              AGOS  (1) Ocean Surveillance Ship; (2) Air-Ground Operations School NATO); (3) Air-Ground Operations System
              AGP  Patrol Craft Tender
              AGR  Army Guard Reserve
              AGS  (1) Hydrographic Survey Ship; (2) FSU Automatic Grenade Launcher
              AGT  Agent
              AGZ  Actual Ground Zero
              AH  (1) Hospital Ship; (2) Alternate Headquarters
              AHFEWS  Army High Frequency Electronic Warfare System
              AI  (1) Airborne Intercept; (2) Air Intelligence; (3) Artificial Intelligence; (4) Air Interdiction; (5) Airborne Interceptors; (6) Area of
              Interest; (7) All-Source Intelligence
              A3I  Accelerated Architecture Acquisition Initiative
              AIA  (1) Army Intelligence Agency; (2) ACE Intelligence Architecture; (3) ACE Interface Architecture; (4) Air Intelligence Agency
              AIAA  American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
              AIA/IRD  Air Intelligence Agency/Intelligence Reserve Detachment
              AIAWS  Automated Intelligence Analyst Workstation
              AIB  Atlantic Intelligence Board
              AIC  (1) Atlantic Intelligence Command; 2) Afloat Intelligence Center
              AICBM  Anti-Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
              AID  (1) U.S. Agency for International Development; (2) Aerospace Information Digest; (3) Army Information Digest;
              (4) Accident, Incident, Deficiencies; 5) Active Integral Defense
              AIDES  (1) Analyst Intelligence Information Display and exploitation System; (2) Automated Intelligence Display and
              Exploitation System
              AIDS  (1) Acoustic Intelligence Data System; (2) Advanced Identification System; (3) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
              AIF  (1) Automated Installations Intelligence File; (2) Army Industrial Fund; (3) Airfield Installation File; (4) Air Intelligence Flight;
              (5) Automated Installation File
              AIFV  Armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle
              AIG  (1) Address Indicator Group; (2) Air Intelligence Group
              AIIC  Advanced Imagery Interpretation Course
              AIIF  Automated Installation Intelligence File
              AIIRS  Automated Intelligence Information Retrieval System
              AIM  (1) Air Intercept Missile; (2) Active Inert Missile; (3) ADCOM Intelligence Memorandum
              AIMD  Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department
              AIMP  (1) Army Intelligence Management Plan; (2) Army Intelligence Master Plan; (3) Advanced Imagery Management Program;
              (4) Automated Information Management Program
              AIMTB  Artificial Intelligence Module Testbed
              AIN  Advanced Intelligence Network
              AIO  Air Intelligence Officer
              AIOEC  Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries
              AIP  (1) Architecture Implementation Plan; (2) Anti-Surface-Warfare Improvement Program
              AIPR  Automated Information Processing Request
              AIR  American Institute for Research
              AIRA  Air Attache
              AIRCENT  (1) Air Forces Central Region (NATO); (2) Allied Air Forces Central Europe
              AIRCOM  Air Command
              AIRCOMTERM  Airborne Communications Terminal
              AIRES  Advanced Imagery Requirements and Exploitation System
              AIRES II  Airborne Reconnaissance Electronic System II
              AIREW  Airborne Infrared Early Warning
              AIRK  Area Interswitch Rekeying Key
              AIRLO  Air Liaison Officer
              AIRREQRECON  Air Request Reconnaissance
              AIR  (1) Replenishment Oiler; (2) American Institute of Research
              AIRS  (1) Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere; (2) Automated Information Retrieval Systems
              AIRTAPS  Aerial Imagery Reconnaissance Tracking and Plotting System
              AIS  (1) Automated Indicator System; (2) Advanced Indications Structure; (3) Advanced Indications System; (4) Army
              Intelligence Survey; (5) Automated Information System; (6) Air Intelligence Squadron
              AISA  Automated Intelligence Support Activity
              AISS  Automated Information Systems Security
              AIST  Air Intelligence Support Team
              AITE  Advanced Indications Technology Experiment
              AIU  Army Interrogation Unit
              AIWO  Air Intelligence Warning Officer
              AIWS  Advanced Interdiction Weapon System
              AJ  Antijamming
              AJCC  Alternate Joint Communications Center
              AJFP  Adaptive Joint Force Package
              AJNPE  Airborne Joint Nuclear Planning Element
              A/JSIC  Alternate JSIC
              AK  (1) Cargo Ship; (2) FSU Kalashnikov Family of Assault Rifles; (3) Automatic Remote Rekeying
              AKA  Also Known As
              AKDC  Automatic Key Distribution Center
              AKD/RCU  Automatic Key Distribution/Rekeying Control Unit
              AKL  Light Cargo Ship
              AKM  (1) Apogee Kick Motor; (2) AK-47 Assault Rifle
              AKMC  Automated Key Management Center
              AKMS  Automated Key Management System
              AKR  Vehicle Cargo Ship
              AKTCAE  Army Korea Technical Control And Analysis Element
              ALAIRCOM  Alaskan Air Command
              ALARM  Alert, Locate and Report Missiles
              ALASAT  Air-Launched Antisatellite
              ALASCOM  Alaskan Communications Inc.
              ALB  Air-Land Battle Doctrine (FM 100-5)
              ALBM  Air-Launched Ballistic Missile
              ALC  Accounting Legend Code
              ALCATS  Automated Lines of Communication and Target System
              ALCC  Airlift Control Center
              ALCE  Airlift Control Element
              ALCM  Air-Launched Cruise Missile
              ALCOM  Alaskan Command
              ALCOP  Alternate Command Post
              ALCOR  ARPA Lincoln C-Band Observable Radar
              ALCS  Airborne Launch Control System
              ALD  Airlift Division
              ALE  (1) AIRES Lifecycle Extension; (2) Automated Link Establishment
              ALERT  Attack and Launch Early Report to Theater (AF)
              ALES  AIRES Life Extension System
              ALF  Auxiliary Landing Field
              ALFA  Advanced Liaison Forward Area
              ALL  Airborne Laser Laboratory
              ALMS  Automated Logistics Management System
              ALO  (1) Air Liaison Officer; (2) Authorized Level of Organization
              ALOC(S)  Air Line(s) of Communication
              ALPS  Accidental Launch Protection System
              ALRAAM  Air-Launched Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile
              ALRP-S  Army Long-Range Plan for Space
              ALRPG  Army Long-Range Planning Guidance
              ALS  (1) Active Laser Seeker; (2) Airborne Link Segment
              ALSA  Air-Land-Sea Application (Center)
              ALSS  Advanced Location Strike System
              ALT  (1) Alternate; (2) Altitude
              ALTAlR  ARPA Long-Range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar
              ALTREV  Altitude Reservation
              ALUSNA  American Legation U.S. Naval Attache
              ALUSNLO  American Legation U.S. Naval Liaison Officer
              ALWT  Advanced Lightweight Torpedo
              ALWTIC  Annual Land Warfare Technical Intelligence Conference
              AM  (1) Ante Meridian (Before Noon); (2) Amplitude Modulation; (3) Asset Manager; (4) Aerographers Mate
              AMAB  Air Mobile Assault Brigade
              AMASS  (1) Advanced Marine Airborne SlGlNT System; (2) Advanced Marine Air Support System
              AMBISS  Automated Map-Based Intelligence Support System
              AMC  (1) Airspace Management and Control; (2) Army Materiel Command (Formerly DARCOM); (3) Air Mobility Command;
              (4) Air Mission Commander
              AMCC  (1) Ashore Mobile Contingency Communications; (2) Ashore Mobile Command Center
              AMC/IN  AMC Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence
              AMCIT  American Citizen
              AMCM  Airborne Mine Countermeasures
              AMD  Activated Metal Decoy
              AMDT  AEELS Mobile Downlink Terminal
              AME  Airspace Management Element
              AMEMB  American Embassy
              AMETS  Artillery Meteorological System
              AMF  Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (NATO)
              AMH  Automated Message Handling
              AMHA  Army Management Headquarters Activity
              AMHS  Automated Message Handling System
              AMIDS  Airborne Mine Detection System
              AMIM  Army Modernization Information Memorandum
              AMIP  Army Model Improvement Plan
              AMIRS  Army Multispectral Imagery Requirements Study
              AMIS  Advanced Microwave Imaging Sensor
              AMM  Army Modernization Memorandum
              Ammo  Ammunition
              AMMS  (1) Allowance Material Management System; (2) Acquisition Milestone Management System
              AMOPES  Army Mobilization and Operations Planning and Execution System
              AMOPS  Army Mobilization Operations and Planning System
              AMOS  Air Force Maui Optical System
              AMP  (1) Amplification; (2) Army Modernization Plan; (3) Acquisition Master Plan
              AMPDS  Automated Message Processing Dissemination System
              AMPE  Automated Message Processing Exchange
              AMPHI  Aerial Mission Photographic Indoctrination
              AMPHIB  Amphibious
              AMPL  Amplitude
              AMPS  (1) Automated Mission Planning System; (2) Automated Message Processing System; (3) Aim Point System
              AMRAAM  Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile
              AMRWS  Advanced Remote Miniaturized Weather Station
              AMS  (1) Automated Message System; (2) Auto-Manual System; (3) Autonomous Message Switch; (4) Advanced Mapping Spectrometer
              AMSAT  Amateur Radio Satellite
              AMSC  Advanced Military Spaceflight Capability
              AMS-H  Advanced Missile System Heavy
              AMSSA  Assured Mission Support Space Architecture
              AMST  Advanced Medium STOL Transport
              AMT  ACTS Mobile Terminal
              AMTF  Airmobile Task Force
              AMTP  Army Mission Training Plan
              AMU  Astronaut Maneuvering Unit
              AMW  Amphibious Warfare
              AN  (1) Net Tender; (2) Army/Navy
              ANALIT  Analyst-to-Analyst Message Format
              ANC  African National Congress
              ANCC  (1) Ashore Navy Communications Capability; (2) Automated Network Control Center
              ANDVT  Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal
              ANEX  Analyst-to-Analyst Exchange Message Format
              ANFO   Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil
              ANG Air National Guard
              ANGB  Army National Guard Base
              ANGLlCO  Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company
              ANL  Net-Laying Ship
              ANLYS  Analysis
              ANMCC  Alternate National Military Command Center
              ANMIC  Alternate National Military Intelligence Center
              ANR  (1) Alaskan NORAD Region; (2) Active Noise Reduction
              ANRPC  Association of Natural Rubber-Producing Countries
              ANSI  American National Standards Institute
              ANVIS  Aviator’s Night Vision Imaging System
              AN/VRC  Army Navy Vehicle Radio Communications
              ANZUS  Australia, New Zealand, United States
              AO  (1) Action Officer; (2) Oiler; (3) Authenticator Organization; (4) Area of Operations; (5) Aerial Observer
              AOA  (1) Amphibious Objective Area; (2) Angle of Attack; (3) Angle of Arrival; (4) Airborne Optical Adjunct
              AOB  (1) Air Order of Battle; (2) Advanced Operational Base
              AOBTS  Air Order of Battle Textual Summary
              AOC  (1) Air Officer Commanding (U.K.); (2) Air Operations Center; (3) Army Operations Center
              AOCC  Area Operations Control Center
              AOCS  Aviation Officers Candidate School
              AOE  Fast Combat Support Ship
              AOFDA  U.S. AID Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance
              AOG  Gasoline Tanker
              AOI  (1) Area of Influence; (2) Area of Interest
              AOIC  Assistant Officer in Charge
              AOIR  (1) ACE Operational Intelligence Requirements; (2) Area of Intelligence Responsibility
              AOL  Area of Limitation
              AO&M/NM  Administration, Operations, and Maintenance/Network Management
              AOO  Air Operations Order
              AOP  (1) Area of Probability; (2) Air Operations Plan
              AOR  Area of Responsibility
              AOS  (1) Special Liquids Tanker; (2) Amphibious Objective Study; (3) Area of Separation
              AOSG  Amphibious Operation Support Graphic
              AOSS  Automated Office Support System
              AOT  Transport Oiler
              AOTF  Acoustic-Optic Tunable Filter
              AP  (1) Armor-Piercing; (2) Air Police; (3) Transport Ship; (4) Associated Press; (5) Ammonium Perchlorate; (6) Antipersonnel; (7) Application Processor
              AP-I  Armor Piercing Incendiary
              APB  (1) Self-Propelled Barracks Ship; (2) All Points Bulletin; (3) Antipersonnel Bomb; (4) Acquisition Program Baseline
              APC  (1) Armored Personnel Carrier; (2) Area of Positive Control; (3) Adaptive Predictive Coding
              APCC  Alternate Processing and Correlation Center
              APFSDS  Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized, Discarding Sabot
              APHIS  USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
              APL  (1) Barracks Craft (non self-propelled); (2) Applied Physics Laboratory (Johns Hopkins University)
              APM  Army Program Memorandum
              APMS  (1) Automated Production Management System; (2) Advanced Precision Measurement System
              APO  (1) Army Post Office; (2) Air Post Office
              APOD  Aerial Port of Debarkation
              APOE  Aerial Port of Embarkation
              APORTS  Aerial Ports File (JOPES)
              APP  Application
              APPS  Applications
              Appl  Application
              Approx  Approximately
              APPS  Analytical Photogrammetric Position System
              APS  (1) ASARS-II Processing Segment; (2) Air Planning System
              APT  (1) Automatic Picture Transmission; (2) Airport
              APU  Auxiliary Power Unit
              APVO  FSU Air Defense Aviation
              APW American Prisoner of War
              AQF  Advanced QUICKFIX
              AR  (1) Advanced Readiness; (2) Army Regulation; (3) Action Required; (4) Repair Ship; (5) Agent Report; (6) Army Reserve; (7) Army
              ARABSAT  Arab Satellite (Communications Organization)
              ARB  Battle Damage Repair Ship
              ARC  (1) Cable Ship; (2) Acquisition Review Committee; (3) Armored Reconnaissance Carrier; (4) Air Reserve Component
              ARCENT  U.S. Army Forces Central Command
              ARCENT-K  USACENT forward element-Kuwait
              ARCENT-SA  USACENT forward element-Saudi Arabia
              ARCH  Architecture
              ARCOM  Army Command
              ARDC Air Research and Development Command
              AREC  Air Element Coordinator
              ARCS  (1) Automated Reproduction and Collating System; (2) Acquisition Radar and Control System
              ARD  Auxiliary Repair Drydock
              ARDF  Airborne Radio Direction Finding
              ARDM  Auxiliary Repair Drydock
              AREPT  Agent Report
              ARF  Airborne Relay Facility
              ARFCOS  Armed Forces Courier Service
              ARFOR  Army Force(s)
              ARG  (1) Amphibious Readiness Group; (2) Internal Combustion Engine Repair Ship
              ARIS  Advanced Range Instrumentation Ship
              ARL  (1) Landing Craft Repair Ship; (2) Airborne Reconnaissance Low; (3) Army Research Lab; (4) Aerial Reconnaissance Liaison
              ARL-I  Airborne Reconnaissance Low-Imagery
              ARLANT  U.S. Army Forces, LANTCOM
              ARLEA  Army Logistics Evaluation Agency
              ARLO  Air Reconnaissance Liaison Officer
              ARM  (1) Antiradiation Missile; (2) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
              ARMA  Army Attache
              ARMISE  Army Reserve Military Intelligence Support Element
              ARMLO  Army Liaison Officer
              ARMS  Automated Resource Management System
              ARNG  Army National Guard
              ARO  (1) Area Records Officer; (2) Auxiliary Readout
              ARP  Alert Response Plan
              ARPA  Advanced Research Projects Agency
              ARPAC  Army Pacific
              ARPANET  Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
              ARPS  Advanced Radar Processing System
              ARPV  Advanced Remotely Piloted Vehicle
              ARR  Radiological Repair Ship
              ARRC  (1) ACE Rapid Reaction Corps; (2) Allied Rapid Reaction Corps
              ARRN  Andean Ridge Radar Network
              ARRS  Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service
              ARS  (1) Salvage and Rescue Ship; (2) Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance; (3) Airborne Receiver System; (4) Air Rescue Service
              ARSA  (1) Annual Reevaluation of Safe Areas; (2) Airborne Reconnaissance and Surveillance Architecture
              ARSGS  Airborne Reconnaissance SIGINT Ground Systems
              ARSO  Assistant Regional Security Officer
              ARSOA  Army Special Operations Aviation
              ARSOC  Army Special Operations Command
              ARSOF  Army Special Operations Forces
              ARSOFE  Army Special Operations Forces, Europe
              ARSOFSUPCOM  Army Special Operations Forces Support Command
              ARSOTF  Army Special Operations Task Force
              ARSP  Advanced Reconnaissance Support Program
              ARSPACE  Army Space Command
              ARSPACECOM  Army Space Command
              ARSPOC  Army Space Operations Center
              ARSST  Army Space Command Space Support Team
              ARSTAF  Army Staff
              ART  (1) Aerial Reconnaissance Team; (2) Amateur Radio Transceiver
              ARTADS  Army Tactical Data System
              ARTAS-K  Army Training and Support-Kuwait (former name for ARCENT-K)
              ARTBASS  Army Training Battle Simulation Systems
              ARTCC  Air Route Traffic and Control Center
              ARTEP  (1) Army Readiness Training Evaluation Program; (2) Army Training and Evaluation Program
              ARTISS  Advanced Requirements Tasking Information and Support System
              ARTPP  Airborne Reconnaissance Technology Program Plan
              ARTS  Automated Remote Tracking Station
              ARTY  Artillery
              ARV  (1) Armored Recovery Vehicle; (2) Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle; (3) Aircraft Repair Ship
              ARW  Air Refueling Wing
              AS  (1) Submarine Tender; (2) Air Surveillance; (3) Analysis Subsystem; (4) Air Station; (5) Anti Spoofing; (6) Advanced Sensors
              ASA  Army Space Agency
              ASA  (M&RA)Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
              ASAB  All-Source Analysis Branch
              ASAC  All-Source Analysis Center
              ASAP  (1) As Soon As Possible; (2) Advanced Sensor Applications Program
              ASAR  Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar
              ASARC  Army Systems Acquisition Review Council
              ASARS  Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System
              ASART  (1) AEELS Support Analysis Reporting Terminal; (2) Analysis Support and Reporting Terminal
              ASAS  All-Source Analysis System
              ASAS-AS  All-Source Analysis System All-Source Workstation
              ASAS-E  All-Source Analysis System-Extended
              ASAS-SS  All-Source Analysis System Single-Source Workstation
              ASAS-W  All-Source Analysis System WARRIOR
              ASAT  (1) Antisatellite; (2) Antisatellite Treaty; (3) Advance Satellite Antenna Technology
              ASB  (1) Air Surveillance Broadcast; (2) Army Science Board
              ASC  (1) AUTODlN Switching Center; (2) Army Service Component; (3) Army Space Command; (4) Advanced Systems Course
              ASCAMP  Advanced Single-Channel Manpack
              ASCII  American Standard Code for Information Interchange
              ASCC  (1) Air Standardization Coordinating Committee; (2) Alternate Space Control Center
              ASCII  American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
              ASCM  Antiship Cruise Missile
              ASCON  Automatic Switched Communications Network
              ASD  Assistant Secretary of Defense
              ASD  (C3I) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence)
              ASD  (C4I) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence)
              ASD  (ISA) Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
              ASD  (S&R) Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Requirements
              ASD  (SO/LIC) Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict
              ASDC  Advanced Space Data Corporation
              ASDEP  Army Space Exploitation Demonstration Programs
              ASDIA  All-Source Document Index
              ASDIAZ  All-Source Document Index Automated File-Compartmented
              ASDIAZO  All-Source Document Index Automated File-ORCON
              ASDIC  Armed Services Documents Intelligence Center
              ASDS  (1) Automated SlGlNT Dissemination System; (2) Advanced SEAL Delivery System
              ASDV  Auxiliary SEAL Delivery Vehicle
              ASE  (1) Aircraft Survivability Equipment; (2) Airborne Support Element
              ASEAN  Association of Southeast Asian Nations
              ASED  Army Space Exploitation Demonstration
              ASEDP  Army Space Exploitation Demonstration Program
              ASEMA  Army Special Electronic Mission Aircraft
              ASF  All-Source Format
              ASFC  All-Source Fusion Center
              ASG  Area Support Group
              ASGOBS  Army Standard Ground Order of Battle System
              ASI  (1) Additional Skill Indicator; (2) U.S. Army Space Institute; (3) All-Source Intelligence
              ASIC  All-Source Intelligence Center
              ASICC  All-Source Intelligence Coordinating Center
              ASIDS  Airborne Secondary Imagery Dissemination System
              ASIP  All-Source Imagery Processor
              ASIPS  Army Standard Intelligence Plotter System
              ASIS  Army Space Initiatives Study
              ASIT  Adaptable Surface Interface Terminal
              ASM  (1) Air-to-Surface Missile; (2) Antiship Missile; (3) Attache Support Message
              ASMD  Antiship Missile Defense
              ASMT  Assessment
              ASN  (RDA) Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition)
              ASOC  Air Support Operations Center
              ASOG  Air Support Operations Group
              ASOS  Air Support Operations Squadron
              ASP  Ammunition Supply Point
              ASPAC  Asian and Pacific Council
              ASPADOC  Alternate Space Defense Operations Command
              ASPB  Assault Patrol Support Boat (Riverine Warfare Craft)
              ASPIC  Armed Services Personnel Interrogation Center
              ASPJ  Airborne/Advanced Self-Protection Jammer
              ASPO  Army Space Program Office
              ASPS  All-Source Production Section
              ASR  (1) Submarine Rescue Ship; (2) Airport Surveillance Radar; (3) Adaptive Situation Recognizer
              ASRP  (1) Airborne SlGlNT Reconnaissance Program; (2) Airborne SIOP Reconnaissance Plan
              ASRRS  Army Survivable, Recovery and Reconstitution System
              ASSC  Alternate Space Surveillance Center
              ASSET  All Source Satellite Evaluation Tool
              ASSIST  (1) Army System for Standard Intelligence Support Terminals; (2) Automated Special Security Terminals; (3) Automated Special Security Information System; (4) Automated Information System Security Incident Support Team
              ASSM  Antiship Surface Missile
              ASSOTW  Airfields and Seaplane Stations of the World
              ASSR  Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
              ASST  (1) Antiship Surveillance and Tracking; (2) Assistant
              ASSW  Antisurface Ship Warfare
              ASTAG  Army Service and Technology Advisory Group
              ASTEC  Advanced Satellite Technology and Extremely High Frequency Communications
              ASTERIX  Automated Analyst Support Tools
              ASTMP  Army Science and Technology Master Plan
              ASTP  APOLLO-SOYUZ Test Program
              ASU  (1) FSU Airborne Self-Propelled Antitank Gun; (2) Approved for Service Use
              ASUW  Antisurface Warfare
              ASU SWA  Administrative Support Unit Southwest Asia
              ASUWC  Antisurface Warfare Commander
              ASV  Armored Support Vehicle
              ASW  (1) Antisubmarine Warfare; (2) Aircrew Survival Weapon
              ASWC  Antisubmarine Warfare Commander
              ASWCCS  Antisubmarine Warfare Command and Control System
              ASWOC  Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Center
              ASWTF  Antisubmarine Warfare Task Force
              AT  (1) Antitank; (2) Air Transit; (3) Simple Antenna (Electronic Component); (4) Air Technician; (5) Awaiting Transportation;
              (6) Antiterrorism, (7) Annual Training
              ATA  (1) Actual Time of Arrival; (2) Ocean Tug; (3) Air Transport Association; (4) Advanced Tactical Aircraft; (5) Air Traffic
              ATAC  ASAP Technical Advisory Committee
              ATACC  Advanced Tactical Air Command Center
              ATACMS  (U.S.) Army Tactical Missile System
              ATACMS ER  Army Tactical Missile System Extended Range
              ATACS  (1) Analyst-to-Analyst Communications Service; (2) Army Tactical Communications System
              ATAF  Allied Tactical Air Force (NATO)
              ATARS  Advanced Tactical Aerial Reconnaissance System
              ATAS  (1) Air-To-Air Stinger; (2) Automatic Terrain Avoidance System
              ATB  (1) Air Technical Battalion; (2) Advanced Technology Bomber
              ATBM  Antitactical Ballistic Missile
              ATC  (1) Air Traffic Control; (2) Air Training Command, USAF; (3) Air Target Chart; (4) Mini-Armored Troop Carrier (Riverine
              Warfare Craft)
              ATCAE  Army Technical Control and Analysis Element
              ATCC  Air Traffic Control Center
              ATCCS  Army Tactical Command and Control System
              ATCH  ASW Torpedo-Carrying Helicopter
              ATCU  Airfield Traffic Control Unit
              ATD  (1) Actual Time of Departure; (2) Advanced Technology Demonstration
              ATDB  ACE Target Data Base
              ATD/IFD  Advanced Technology Demonstration/Integrated Feasibility Demonstration
              ATDL  Automated Tactical Data Link
              ATDS  Airborne Tactical Data System
              ATE  Automatic Test Equipment
              ATETS  Atomic Heat and Powerplant
              ATF  (1) Advanced Tactical Fighter; (2) Amphibious Task Force; (3) Fleet Ocean Tug; (4) Aviation Turbine Fuel; (5) After the Fact
              ATFD  Automated Tactical Fusion Division
              ATGIN  Atomic Ground Intercept
              ATGL  Antitank Guided Launcher
              ATGM  Antitank Guided Missile
              ATH  Above The Horizon
              ATI  Automated Tactical Intelligence
              ATIC  Aircraft Technical Intelligence Conference
              ATIMS  Advanced Technical Information Management System
              ATL  ACE Threat List
              ATLIS  Airborne Tracking Laser Identification System
              atm  Atmosphere
              ATM  (1) Antitank Missile; (2) Air Target Materials; (3) Air Target Mosaic; (4) Antitactical Missile; (5) Asynchronous Transfer
              Mode; (6) Air Tasking Message
              A-TM  Alpha Team (Special Forces Operational Detachment)
              ATMDE  Army Theater Missile Defense Element
              ATMG  Arms Transfer Management Group
              ATMOS  Atmospheric Trace Molecules Spectroscopy
              ATMP  Air Target Materials Program
              ATO  (1) Air Tasking Order; (2) Abort-To-Orbit
              ATOC  Allied Tactical Operations Center (NATO)
              AFTOCONF  Air Tasking Order Confirmation
              ATOL  Assisted Takeoff & Landing
              ATOS  Atlantic Theater Operational Intelligence System
              ATP  (1) Allied Tactical Publication (NATO); (2) Advanced Technology Program; (3) Advanced Tracking Prototype; (4) Advanced
              Tactical Planner
              ATP-FO  Automated Tracking Prototype Follow-On
              ATP/RMBUX  Advance Tracking Prototype/Rocky Mountain Basic UNIX
              ATR  Automatic Target Recognition
              ATRS  Advanced Tactical Reconnaissance System
              ATS  (1) Salvage and Rescue Ship; (2) Automated Tasking System; (3) Audit Trail Server; (4) Applications Technology Satellite
              ATSS  Alaskan Transportable Satellite System
              AT&T  American Telephone and Telegraph
              ATT  Technical Assistance Training Team
              ATTCS  Army Tactical Command and Control System
              ATTD  Advanced Technology Transition Demonstration
              ATTE  Assistant Theater Topographic Engineer
              ATTG  Automated Tactical Target Graphic
              ATTN/Attn  Attention (to the attention of)
              ATTP  ACOM Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
              ATWC  Atmospheric Tactical Warning Connectivity
              AU  Air University
              AUD  Arbitrary Unit Designator
              AUGTDA  Augmentation Table of Distribution and Allowances
              AUM  Air-to-Underwater Missile
              AUS  Army of the United States
              AUSA  Association of the United States Army
              AUSCANUKUS  Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States
              AUSD  Assistant Deputy Under Secretary for Defense
              AutoID  Automatic Identification
              AUTODIN  Automatic Digital Network
              AUTOSEC  Automation Security
              AUTOSEVOCOM  Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network
              AUTOVON  Automatic Voice Network
              AUTUMN FORGE  NATO Exercise
              AUXCP  Auxiliary Command Post
              AV  (1) Armored Vehicle; (2) Audio-Visual; (3) Air Vehicle; (4) Auxiliary Vector
              AVCS  Attitude and Velocity Control System
              AVF  All-Volunteer Force
              AVGAS  Aviation Gasoline
              AVHRR  Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
              AVIM  Aviation Intermediate Maintenance
              AVLB  Armored Vehicle-Launched Bridge
              AVMF  FSU Naval Aviation
              AVMT  Aviation Maintenance Trainer
              AVN  Aviation
              AVP  Authorized Vendor Program
              AVR  Aircraft Rescue Vehicle
              AVSAT  Aviation Satellite System
              AVSCOM  Aviation System Command
              AVT  Auxiliary Aircraft Landing Training Ship
              AVUM  Aviation Unit Maintenance
              AW  (1) Air Warning; (2) Automatic Weapon(s); (3) Water Tanker; (4) All-Weather
              AWACS  Airborne Warning and Control System
              AWADS  Adverse Weather Aerial Delivery System
              AWARS  All-Weather Reconnaissance System
              AWC  (1) Air War College; (2) Army War College; (3) Air Warfare Center
              AWDS  Automated Weather Distribution System
              AWE  Advanced Warfighting Experiment
              AWESS I  Automatic Weapon Effect Signature Simulator
              AWGN  Additive White Gaussian Noise
              AWIS  (1) Army WWMCCS Information System; (2) Aircraft Wireless Intercom System
              AWN  Automated Weather Network
              AWOP  (1) Absent Without Pay; (2) Automated Weaponeering Optimization Program
              AWS  (1) Air Weather Service; (2) Advance Warning System; (3) Analyst Workstation
              AWSS  Area Weapon Scoring System
              AWT  Water Transport
              AWWIMS  Automated Worldwide Warning Indicator Monitoring System
              AWX  All-Weather
              AXAF  Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility
              AXP  Allied Exercise Publication
              AXT  Training Ship
              AZ  Azimuth

              and more!

        •  I think Acronyms are a different situation (3+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          JerryNA, PinHole, lineatus

          If you are writing for a fairly general audience, which I think would be the case for anyone writing a diary on this site I wouldn't assume that a reader knew any acronym specific to a certain discipline.

          I'm biased in that I dislike acronyms in general and only use them when it is very inconvenient not to do so (and then I always write them out the first time).

          "To see both sides of a quarrel, is to judge with hate or alarm" - Richard Thompson

          by matching mole on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 12:03:06 PM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  NASA? (0+ / 0-)

            Would you consider "NASA" to be "specific to a certain discipline"?  If not, why not?

            •  That's just a silly question (0+ / 0-)

              Is 'unemployment' specific to a certain discipline? It's a term of art in economics. But it's also a word that people commonly know of outside the discipline.

              Is NASA a word (or acronym) that people commonly know of outside the discipline? Yes. Is JPL a word (or initialism) that people commonly know of outside the discipline? No.

              Why are you even arguing this? It's silly.

              •  It's not silly (0+ / 0-)

                Why is it silly?  How do you know that NASA is well known outside of aeronautics?  How do you know that JPL isn't?  JPL's initials are plastered over just about every probe and rover we've sent out over the last few decades; I don't think it's silly to expect it to be almost as well known as NASA.

                But by saying it's "silly", you're implying that it's completely obvious that JPL is unheard of amongst any but the well-connected elite, while NASA is known to even the most isolated and poorly read.  So I ask you: on what grounds do you say this?

                •  Well, for one thing, no one asked what NASA (1+ / 0-)
                  Recommended by:
                  matching mole

                  stands for.  Several people asked what JPL stands for.  So within an audience that has enough interest to know NASA, there are still a number who are not familiar with JPL.

                  The thing is, this discussion is about making writing clearer and more understandable to a wide range of readers.  That seems like a worthy goal.  People are not saying that the diary needs to include any background info on JPL (which would be more burdensome), just that it would be helpful to spell out the name on first use.  If a simple measure can add clarity, why not do it.  I think it's fair to say The New Yorker has a pretty literate, well-read audience.  Even so, they will spell out first use of any abbreviation like this, because they don't want to distract from the flow of the story by sending people elsewhere to look up a term.

                  •  NASA wasn't mentioned (0+ / 0-)

                    No one asked about "NASA", because the acronym wasn't used in this diary!  I just used it as an example of a similar acronym.

                    I don't necessary oppose spelling out acronyms on first use... but to be consistent, don't you have to spell out all acronyms?  If not, how does one determine which acronyms need to be spelled out?

            •  I did think about this later (0+ / 0-)

              I certainly wouldn't bother to explain what DNA stood for in a diary, especially as more people would understand DNA as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid.

              However DNA and NASA have clearly entered the broader common language and are not just used by geneticists and space scientists.  There seems to be a real split with regards to JPL.  Many, like myself, had never encountered this acronym.  I have heard of the jet-propulsion laboratory but I would guess I've heard the name maybe 1% as often as I've heard NASA.  My tendency is to err on the side of assuming the reader does not know.  I'd rather type a few more letters rather than have confused readers.

              "To see both sides of a quarrel, is to judge with hate or alarm" - Richard Thompson

              by matching mole on Sat Jan 26, 2013 at 05:51:06 AM PST

              [ Parent ]

        •  The rule is to (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          Dbug, Orinoco

          use the full name of an agency/group with the letters which are going to be used as an abbreviation in caps.  Then you can use the abbreviation thereafter.

          Jet Propulsion Lab  =   JPL    

          I just asked Mr P - a physicist - out of the blue, what JPL was and he didn't know without context.

          LtPowers, please remember no honest questions should be put down. IMO. (In My Opinion)

          •  What? (2+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            shiobe, Orinoco

            I don't believe I suggested that any honest questions should be put down.  What honest question do you think I'm disparaging?

            The JPL is almost as well known as NASA.  Would you expect "National Aeronautics and Space Administration" to be specified if the piece had referred to NASA?

            •  Now that's just silly (3+ / 0-)
              Recommended by:
              Dbug, Orinoco, PinHole

              Look up JPL in google, and then look up NASA in google. The latter has more than ten times as many hits, and many of the hits for the former aren't even for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

              If you really think that JPL is even within an order of magnitude of NASA, recognition-wise, by the man on the street, then you're living in a very select community, and with extreme blinders on. (But I am forced to suspect that you don't, and are just arguing for the sake of arguing.)

              •  I have two coffee mugs with JPL on them (0+ / 0-)

                one red, and one green. I guess I am in that very select community of ex-science teachers, although I don't do presentations. I must admit, though, I've known of NASA a lot longer than I've known of JPL.

                "The problems of incompetent, corrupt, corporatist government are incompetence, corruption and corporatism, not government." Jerome a Paris

                by Orinoco on Fri Jan 25, 2013 at 01:21:29 AM PST

                [ Parent ]

                •  WOW!!! I have a pot holder from NASA! (0+ / 0-)

                  ...... snort!..........

                  Some of us remember a time before NASA!
                  Both agencies had their nests established before we were hatched.

                  Cue:  Eye roll!

                  Enjoy your coffee, tea or hot chocolate in your special mugs ...... :-)

                  •  How cool! (0+ / 0-)

                    Unfortunately, the JPL shop we visited during the tour offered to local area science teachers mainly sold JPL labled stuff that might be used in an office setting: coffee mugs, lanyards, id card holders, note pad folders, pens, pencils, paperweights, umbrellas and shot glasses (!). No pot holders, or I'm sure I would have bought one or two.

                    I do hope those involontary facial tics don't cause you too much trouble... I'm enjoying a nice cappacino in my red JPL mug today. ;^)


                    "The problems of incompetent, corrupt, corporatist government are incompetence, corruption and corporatism, not government." Jerome a Paris

                    by Orinoco on Mon Jan 28, 2013 at 11:23:44 AM PST

                    [ Parent ]

              •  I don't know (0+ / 0-)

                I don't know, and that's rather the point.  You're taking it as an article of faith that JPL is virtually unknown to the world at large, and I'm just challenging that assertion, for which you've provided no evidence.

                (Google hits don't count; the "number of results" is notoriously unreliable.)

    •  I'm a big believer in spelling out the acronym 1st (27+ / 0-)

      time it appears, then using the acronym after that.  

      It took me a minute to guess Jet Propulsion Lab must be what we were talking about and I can certainly guess there would be others scratching their heads even longer.

      "Push the button, Max!" Jack Lemmon as Professor Fate, The Great Race

      by bartcopfan on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:15:55 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  May be a West Coast nerd thing. (15+ / 0-)

      I am in a rural retirement community in WA and both my neighbors are retired from JPL.  Science-leaning kids here know where the employers and tech universities are, especially in California.  I can imagine that thousands of miles away, it might not be a common topic.

    •  Yes you are, and you should know about Google (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      shiobe, HoopJones

      too. FFS.

  •  This particular issue drives me absolutely nuts. (52+ / 0-)

    I constantly see female students behave more circumspectly than male students in my math classes, and I've become convinced that it is because they have "learned" that they are "bad at math". It's almost never true, of course, but I end up spending far more time addressing the confidence issues with female students than with male students. At least, with the males, it is rarely something that inhibits their attempts.

    The most amusing thing is that usually, once I get the females past their confidence issues, they generally make faster progress than do the males.

    •  Math is the basis of all science (39+ / 0-)

      and when a girl is told she can't do math, that's usually the end of her science dreams.  

      At least it was for me.  My math teachers in high school and the school counselor told me I had a block against math.  I was told that was how my brain worked and that I should never expect to understand math. And I believed them, so when I got into college and realized how much math anthropology, biology etc needed, I quit and focused on English--because, I had been told, I could do that.

    •  It's cuz girls are taught that getting along... (35+ / 0-) THE most important thing. And being too right-- or too confident-- takes away from our likeability.

      And of course,  the most "likeable" girls are the ones who most adhere to gender roles, and make it a second shift performing the emotional labor to make themselves "non-threatening"...

      Real Democrats don't abandon the middle class. --John Kerry

      by Lucy Montrose on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 05:25:23 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  Yes, the Sin of "Being All That". (16+ / 0-)

        Welcome to the wonderful world of girl on girl and woman on woman, gender policing.

        That's where the most damage is done.

      •  Mentoring is really valuable (11+ / 0-)

        There's a time in your life where you have to learn how to be assertive and confident in yourself and how to conduct yourself as a strong woman that other people will respond to as you would wish.

        I believe this is true for all kids probably in all fields. I think young hispanic and black men have it even tougher, to find the inner place where they are themselves, where they are comfortable among all the groups they would like to inhabit, especially if one of those groups is science.

        Fry, don't be a hero! It's not covered by our health plan!

        by elfling on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 09:05:04 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  Mentoring is valuable, but role modeling by the (5+ / 0-)

          parents is so important. Few children are really taught that they matter, that their existence alone is enough to make them "special".

          And unfortunately seems to me girls are often left behind, still, today, with the assumption they will grow up to be mothers,with temporary "careers" sandwiched in around motherhood.

          Not for all, of course, it's generally much better than 30-40 years ao..

          "Privatize to Profitize" explains every single Republican economic, social and governing philosophy. Take every taxpayer dollar from defense, education, health care, public lands, retirement - privatize it, and profit from it.

          by mumtaznepal on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 11:27:58 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

      •  I have two very bright daughters, (14+ / 0-)

        one a college sophomore (physics major) and one a senior in high school.  The high schooler, who is a National Merit Scholar, top 5% of her class, etc., was upset recently by a conversation among her friends (she wasn't there, and was told about it later).

        The friends, a close group of both boys & girls, were talking about prom dates, and about who my daughter would go with, as a friend, since she's not dating anyone.  One of her girlfriends said, "Jane really needs to stop being so independent all the time if she ever wants to get a boyfriend or a husband!"  

        My daughter is used to hearing that stuff from guys, but she was really upset to hear it from one of the girls, who she thought was also pretty independent & on the same page.  WTF, girls????  I've always encouraged my girls never to "dumb it down" for any reason, and we talk about some of their girlfriends who are already planning their weddings (they are only 17), and why they are so unambitious, even though they are bright and do well in school.  I was kind of an oddball myself back in high school, for the same reasons.  I had hoped things would be better for my girls.

        At least they are encouraged to take the hard classes in school, and both do well in math & science.  I've also told them they will attract a better quality of guy, who appreciates smart, independent women!  There just aren't that many of those ;-)

      •  Girl Scientist Bias Continues... (13+ / 0-)

        Even if you get past the obvious and/or subtle bias in training settings, it continues into professional settings as well.  As a female scientist, you have to develop the hide of a rhino to tolerate the attitudes.  It can be a no win situation...if you are excellent they hate you.  If you try to get along, you are not good enough to rise up.  So, it can be a no win situation.  I have mentored dozens of female students who told me they did not think they could remain "themselves" and still be scientists.  I told them that is silly and just an outgrowth of the fact that most stereotypes of scientists are male.  But, you really have to be willing to navigate weird reactions to your female presence to be a scientist.  Yes, even in 2013.

    •  One thing to consider (9+ / 0-)

      Girls are more likely to express their self doubt out loud.  

      That doesn't mean it isn't true that girls have a bias against them, it just means that they may be more likely to vocalize their doubts, whereas a boy is often given the impression that sharing self doubt is demonstrating a weakness.  

      Different bias, but bias nonetheless.


      by otto on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:20:29 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  girls are certainly more apt to express their (12+ / 0-)

        opinions as questions, rather than assertions.

        To put the torture behind us is, inevitably, to put it in front of us.

        by UntimelyRippd on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:23:48 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

        •  And where do you think they learn that? (11+ / 0-)

          A girl may be outgoing, assertive and prone to asking lots of questions...but if she is treated like the girl in the diary (not encouraged, her correct and detailed answers put down.)  She learns to doubt herself, then the putting statements in the form of questions starts.

            My daughter is in college studying Physics, she is great at math and science but has always had a bit of trouble with writing.  Sometimes people get mad because they say she's "too assertive"  " too abrasive".   Well the people who think that can go jump in a lake because being "in your face" is the only way anyone listens to what she has to say.  She is a friendly, kind person but she will not be pushed around, I admire that and I wish I had been more like that when I was younger.

          People keep saying; well girls need to be more confident, raise their hands, be willing to give the answer even if its wrong.  I hate to tell you but for a lot of girls that gets discouraged before you even start school.  A friend of mine is brilliant but when she wanted to go to college her dad said there's no money, we are sending your brother, (the slacker) your don't need college.  She moved out at 18, got a ton of loans and tried doing it on her own, but it shouldn't have to be this hard.

          "You must be the change you wish to see in the world." - Mahatma Gandhi

          by EmbraceYourInnerCrone on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 08:48:30 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

          •  i wasn't saying anything about where they learn (1+ / 0-)
            Recommended by:
            ER Doc

            it. i was simply observing the fact of the behavior.


            To put the torture behind us is, inevitably, to put it in front of us.

            by UntimelyRippd on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 11:17:12 AM PST

            [ Parent ]

          •  yeeeeaaah (7+ / 0-)

            Yep.  I am a girl who acted like a "boy" in classes, and got so much crap for it from teachers and fellow students.  I still resent not making the honor roll many times in middle school because my grades were great but I was bad at "citizenship", which were nebulous grades about how nice we were to each other, and I got points off for blurting answers out.  No ADD diagnosis or even any help at how to learn not to blurt things out and why that would negatively impact my peers, just a "bad girl, no honor roll" at the end of each semester.  

            I got a similar comment on a performance review at work, fairly recently, when I'm on a team of people with several people (including the one that made the comment) who are totally bad about being aggressive/disruptive in meetings, and we all derail the discussion on a regular basis; I'm just the one female one.   (It's possible it went on everyone applicable's review, but I sincerely doubt it.)  

            It's a catch-22 -- be unassertive, and it's your fault.  Be assertive, and it's your fault.  

      •  I think women and girls do it to be polite (8+ / 0-)

        a lot of the time. I will sometimes preface something with a slight hedge or expression of doubt, and it isn't low self-esteem but just a ritualistic display of politeness. I'm pretty sure a lot of females perform that ritual (studies by linguists seem to indicate as much), and it may be misinterpreted by males.

        I still remember in an 8th grade biology class -- a million years ago -- when I was called on in class and began by saying, "Well, I'm not sure, but --" and the (male) teacher interrupted me, said he wanted to hear from someone who actually knew, and called on someone else -- who gave exactly the answer I had been about to give. It wasn't that I was dilly-dallying around and being coy and taking forever to get to the point, either -- just that one brief, ritualistic display of politeness was enough to get me interrupted and silenced. I suspect that kind of misunderstanding contributes to inequalities in school and the workplace.

        Please visit:

        by Noisy Democrat on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 12:56:04 PM PST

        [ Parent ]

      •  Oh my goodness yes (0+ / 0-)

        and I teach English, not math or science.

        Freshman in high school are still learning to write. However, there were some that I had that were really good. Some of them knew it, and I mean that in a good way--there were both boys and girls in that situation. But the ones who were good but needed constant encouragement? Pretty much all girls.

        I hardly ever had a boy say, "Mr. Downey, I can't DO this!!"...even the ones that couldn't very well :). But I had girls say that all the time, including the ones that absolutely could.

        "Maybe: it's a vicious little word that could slay me"--Sara Bareilles

        by ChurchofBruce on Sat Jan 26, 2013 at 11:26:56 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

    •  anecdotes are not data, but: (8+ / 0-)

      Good for you.  Though even one teacher isn't enough.

      I'm a female engineer, who generally does not have problems speaking up in class, and was encouraged by my engineer father from an early age, so I avoided a lot of this, but there was one class that was the exception.  

      There were only two women, myself and one other, who I knew from outside class although we weren't close friends.  She and I were both quite good at math and already knew some of what the class was covering, and tended to ask nuanced questions.  (That's not bragging, that's just important to the next part of the story.)  About 2/3 of the class was either keeping up with the material pretty well or was not interested in asking questions, and about 1/3 was struggling and willing to ask for help when they needed it.  

      Whenever we asked our questions, since the prof was good at calling on us, a handful of the male students in the struggling group would berate us for the question, and then ask a simpler question.  They didn't do this much if at all to the men asking nuanced questions, just us.  They'd talk over us until we shut up, and the prof would just answer the last question asked.  I.e. not ours.  

      We started skipping class if we weren't both going to be there to back each other up; we both aced the class fairly easily despite that.  But if there had been any women either struggling or just keeping up, that one class could have turned them out of the field just like that.  

    •  {{{{{{Daddy Bartholomew}}}}}}THANK YOU (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      ER Doc, chimene, 43north

      for making this effort. I had not been very comfortable in math until 7th grade with Miss Groteluschen. Not only was she a woman, she could EXPLAIN math enough to make me feel confident. I never got to calculus, but I still love stats and all kinds of figuring. As long as there isn't a $ in front of it.

      "People, even more than things, have to be restored, renewed, revived, reclaimed and redeemed; never throw out anyone. " Audrey Hepburn "A Beautiful Woman"

      by Ginny in CO on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 01:08:58 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  He needs to be told the world has moved on (6+ / 0-)

    and is leaving him where he belongs ... in the regrettably blinkered past.

    "I was a big supporter of waterboarding" - Dick Cheney 2/14/10

    by Bob Love on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 08:50:42 PM PST

    •  While he does need to be told (12+ / 0-)

      he doesn't need to be dismissed... yet. As a teacher it's amazing the things we do that we aren't aware of. I've had people observe my classes and afterwards point out that I called on certain students or groups of students more often, or waited longer for certain students to answer, etc., making it seem like I had a serious bias. I had no idea I was doing it, and it certainly wasn't a conscious bias. It just takes someone pointing it out to you, then you can adjust. This guy may not realize what he's doing -- he's a product of decades of biased surroundings.

      IOW, the diarist should just let him know what s/he observed. That's probably enough to make him realize there's something going on. If not, well, then he can be told that the world has moved on.

  •  "even" JPL presenters? (8+ / 0-)

    why were you expecting them to be more fair than the average science professional?

    by the way, what is a JPL presenter?

    Politics is like driving. To go backward put it in R. To go forward put it in D.
    Drop by The Grieving Room on Monday nights for support in dealing with grief.

    by TrueBlueMajority on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 08:57:06 PM PST

    •  Yes. "Even". (18+ / 0-)

      I have never seen a generalized talk by any other science  presenter in a library, including other JPL speakers, that showed that type of bias, and was disappointed this one did.  Most of the general science presenters are usually very good at promoting STEM fields to girls (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math).

      Like many organizations, Jet Propulsion Laboratories have individuals (in this case, a volunteer) who travel about the United States and give presentations about various aspects of JPL's work, from a general understanding of outer space to Curiosity, the latest Mars rover.  There used to be far more people able to give talks and presentations, but budget cuts decimated this program--and that is where the volunteers come in.  It is hard for places to book a JPL speaker, too--in my library's case, it took 6 months before the program was booked, and anther 6 months before it happened.

    •  In theory at least (18+ / 0-)

      publicly funded national labs (like JPL) and universities "care deeply" about diversity and about disseminating scientific knowledge to the broadest group of K-12 students to get everyone who's interested into the pipeline. There are millions of grant dollars spent annually on this issue. This guy probably even thinks he cares about diversity. If his superiors who run the program heard back about this (and especially if this story went viral), there would in fact be a whole lot of embarrassment, soul-searching discussion on the topic and "how can we make it better".

      Do you not see that it is the grossest idolatry to speak of the market as though it were the rival of God?

      by kismet on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 04:10:39 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  Here's Who Should Have Been Sent Instead (5+ / 0-)

      The Twitter feed for Curosity was done exclusively by women.

      One of the things that makes these pages so engaging and popular is that they’re written in the first person. Curiosity, it turns out, has quite the brassy personality. She litters her twitter feed with pop culture references, tweetspeak, and a bold attitude.

      Behind that brassy personality are three women working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Veronica McGregor, Social Media Manager; Stephanie L. Smith and Courtney O’Connor, both Social Media Specialists. I had a chance to talk with the entire team on the phone today about their challenges and successes in being the voice of the largest spacecraft ever to touch the surface of another world.

  •  It's an important story to tell. (15+ / 0-)

    Unfortunately, we're not the only ones you should be telling it to. If you want to see this kind of injustice come to an end it is incumbent upon you to speak up to whoever it is that is behaving in a discriminatory manner.

    On behalf of little girls, get the presenter's contact info and either call him or send him an e-mail pointing out what he did. He may never realize that what he's doing is dismissive and unfair until someone points it out to him.

    Not this mind and not this heart, I won't rot • Mumford & Sons

    by jayden on Wed Jan 23, 2013 at 09:00:21 PM PST

    •  And include links to National Science Foundation (11+ / 0-)

      in an e-mail. There are many, and even if he's a scientist who has worked under NSF grants for basic/applied projects, he could still be clueless about studies related to girls'/women's (and peoples of color's) more subtle exclusion or discouragement from advancing in STEM, as odd as that might sound. But if he's a lab person, he might not be an educator. Either way, he might be interested in information coming directly from NSF related to (and supportive of) increasing diversity in STEM education and careers. Just go to NSF website and search under "women and girls" and you get tons of info via the Education and Human Resources Directorate.

      I discover myself on the verge of a usual mistake. ― Walt Whitman, Song of Myself

      by dannyboy1 on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 04:41:46 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  As A Former JPLer (17+ / 0-)

    this kinda of surprises me. Back in the 60s, yes, JPL was an "old boys network." That changed into the 90s and turn of the century. There are lots of women (and people of every color imaginable) at the Lab.

    I'd be curious to know who this person was.

    •  Probably someone deeply uncomfortable ... (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      FindingMyVoice, Woody, chimene

      ...with over-assertive women in his life.

      Oh, for the sake of his reputation he talked all the time about how egalitarian he was. But when push came to shove, when it came to actually walking this talk, he got scared, turned tail into himself and quietly promoted other men when it counted. Because he liked them better,  because they made him feel more comfortable.

      Real Democrats don't abandon the middle class. --John Kerry

      by Lucy Montrose on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 05:29:32 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  no - he is probably a decent guy that didn't (16+ / 0-)

        even realize what he was doing.  As a teacher educator & someone that has done tons of professional development, I see it all too often.   The bias is entrenched and the teacher is often shocked when they realize they are doing it.

        The presenter needs to be called on this -- but don't jump to assuming the motivations of the presenter are bad.

        •  Those two aren't mutually exclusive. (3+ / 0-)
        •  He may not have to have bad motivations, but still (2+ / 0-)
          Recommended by:
          chimene, 43north

          ...not be able to really make the right decisions when it counts.

          Maybe he doesn't necessarily feel uncomfortable about strong women; but it doesn't occur to him to.actually put one in a position of importance. Maybe he knows qualified men better, maybe he indeed likes them better, maybe they simply have had more opportunity to showcase more talents. Maybe it's something as silly as whether a certain man shared his favorite hobby.

          My point is, these are things that get framed into how good a given candidate's fit is with the company culture or even with just the interviewer himself, so that it looks like a friendship or dating decision is being made, rather than a hiring decision. Also, even purely accounting for job skills, these are nice, everyday ways women fail to advance in their careers. And bad intentions usually are not part of the package; but feeling "I'm more comfortable with X person and they happen to be a man" is not bad intentions. It still results in qualified women failing to get their due.

          Real Democrats don't abandon the middle class. --John Kerry

          by Lucy Montrose on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 09:33:56 AM PST

          [ Parent ]

    •  I was surprised too. (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimene, 43north, nomandates

      JPL is well known for their great programs, at least in my library circles.  I've never heard of another presentation that had similar overtones

  •  Good points about whom to contact regarding (11+ / 0-)

    this important issue.  I would simply add that, in addition to your library, which sponsored the event, and perhaps the individual making the presentation, a letter to JPL is in order, suggesting that representatives speaking on their behalf, including volunteers, are aware of this potential problem.

  •  You could contact the company (7+ / 0-)

    It never hurts to raise awareness at the company level.   Companies that rely on parent's support for their programs will often respond when they realize that they have a problem that is causing parents to complain.


  •  Diary Fail (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    How about giving us at least a CLUE as to what a "JPL" might be?

    "Folly is wont to have more followers and comrades than discretion." -Cervantes-

    by Don Quixote on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 05:43:20 AM PST

  •  I taught high school math many years ago. (11+ / 0-)

    I hope that I treated girls and boys the same because I was taught to do so by my mother, my aunts, and my grandmother. They were all strong, intelligent women. So, I tried to treat my students the same, regardless of gender.

    I observed one thing about boys, girls, and the way that the adult population viewed them. Girls, according to the conventional view were not as good at math as boys. But in my classes I noticed that here and there I would have a student who had the talent to become a real mathematician. Sometimes that student would be a girl and sometimes a boy.

    Then, one level back, would be a group of students who were solid, who did excellent work, who were reliable, who were observant, who had what it takes to deal with every problem in the book and with every special problem I gave them. This group was overwhelmingly female. And these girls rarely asked questions. I don't know if I somehow inhibited them, I hope I didn't.

    Then the next level was mostly boys. They didn't do as well as the level I just described. They didn't ask questions either.

    I left teaching to enter the computer field and soon I was hiring programmers to work for my company. I found that females were much better than males. I found that they were more adult, that they were much more thorough when testing their new programs. They seemed to have an inherent understanding that payroll checks had to be correct and on time, so they devised sophisticated tests to find all kinds of problems that their systems would encounter. The males, on  the other hand, would race through the coding, run a simple test or two, declare that their programs were done, and ask, "Where is my bonus?"

    So I hired women as often as I could. At the time I started there were few women to hire, but it got better.

    So, I watched the real world proof of my grandmother's adage: "If you want something done right and done quickly, give it to a busy woman."

    Might and Right are always fighting, in our youth it seems exciting. Right is always nearly winning, Might can hardly keep from grinning. -- Clarence Day

    by hestal on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:01:18 AM PST

    •  I'm a retired software engineer (5+ / 0-)

      and have to agree that women make great programmers.

      There are very few "one man" projects anymore. Most have to be broken down into a lot of smaller tasks that get assigned to different programmers.

      So team work and cooperation are a priority when it comes to making sure that all the pieces fit together and work properly. And, women are far, far better when it comes to working as part of a team.

      Men tend to be focused on their own little bit of the puzzle and could care less about working with and helping other team members.

      Back when I started back in the late 1960s there were very few women working in the field, but almost without exception they stood out as being good at their jobs and good at being team players.

      Fortunately, today things are a lot different. There are far more women in the field and that's a good thing.

      The only trouble with retirement is...I never get a day off!

      by Mr Robert on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 10:53:20 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  I did stuff like this for ten years (13+ / 0-)

    I made a point of calling evenly on boys and girls.  

    One of the challenges is that girls are far less likely to raise their hands and offer their answers in certain settings.  

    Each child is different, obviously, so to lay one thing on boys and another on girls is dicey.

    One of the things we participated in was  a grant funded program that was intended to teach professional scientists how to deliver their information to the general public in a more effective manner.  

    It was clear from watching the professional scientists that many of them didn't really understand how to do this.  

    Some of what that presenter was doing sounds like the "Guess what the professor is thinking" game.  In that situation, the presenter has one answer they are searching for, and if they don't get it, they will keep asking until they do.  When they get it, they will reward that person with praise.  The presenter doesn't know that he or she is playing the game, because it just happens naturally.

    FWIW, I always avoid words like "bright," or "smart." They assign a fixed value to an individual, and when that individual is unable to perform, then the individual begins to believe that the fixed value is untrue, and they change their opinion of themselves.  

    I would have told the presenter afterwards what I noticed, because those presenters don't have much preparation in terms of professional teaching.  They may appreciate the input.  

    I used to do a pretend psychic show that was intended to get the audience to use the scientific method to uncover my fraudulent activities.  

    I would have groups that were exclusively boys and groups that were exclusively girls.  The difference was shocking.  The boys wanted to verbally confront me, and even raise their voices to something that seemed like anger.  

    The girl groups were more likely to understand that this was a nuanced game, and they would play along.  

    In the end, however, it was never really that simple, but the tendency did exist for that to happen.  

    Maybe I'll diary my experience with my daughter in chess tournaments over the past four years to give people a perspective on what it looks like for a girl to participate in a boy dominated activity that is not related to the physical differences in boys and girls.  

    In one of my chess club sessions, all of the girls dropped.  That was at a different school than my daughter's school. In her chess club, however, there are a lot of girls, and the girls outperform the boys on average.  

    The difference is that one group had a girl setting an example by winning tournaments, and the other had no such example being set.  I've yet to get a girl from that group to attend a tournament.  

    In the end, you would not be out of order to let that person know what you witnessed. It is our money that is paying for these people to do this, in one form or another.


    by otto on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:15:53 AM PST

  •  I'm a woman and have been an engineer for 40 years (37+ / 0-)

    When I was in junior high school on a military base in Germany, I had a math teacher who announced at the beginning of the year that no one had ever gotten a 100% in his class- ever. I made it my mission to do so, and I did - and he quit at the end of the term! The vice principal told me the teacher couldn't stand it that a girl "beat" him, and then told me to keep on doing it. Best advice I ever got.

    "There's a fine line between clever and stupid." This Is Spinal Tap

    by ebirch1 on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:23:59 AM PST

    •  awesome (6+ / 0-)

      I have been an engineer for 25 years and am in awe of your 40!

    •  And, as a leaf... (3+ / 0-)

      ...a good part of what is wrong, imnsho, with teaching in mathematics and the sciences is that very competitiveness.  It is seldom as raw as in the situation you describe, but it is ever-present and a deep part of the culture of math and science education.  It reinforces sexism by virtue of how boys and girls are socialized, of course, but it also shuts out many smart and thoughtful people from some of our species' most beautiful and enduring insights.  And the competitive frame is so deeply entrenched that people who are very good, thoughtful, aware teachers are also squarely in that mode and have no real interest or ability to see beyond it.

      ...j'ai découvert que tout le malheur des hommes vient d'une seule chose, qui est de ne savoir pas demeurer en repos dans une chambre.

      by jessical on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:02:36 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  There is a movie script in that story. Would be (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      88kathy, mrkvica, chimene

      a great story to tell.

      That's one more thing to add to my long list of small problems. --my son, age 10

      by concernedamerican on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:21:02 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  teachers competing with a student (3+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      lineatus, chimene, madhaus

      instead of veiwing teaching as a cooporative endeavor.

      Glad he quite, wrong personality for teaching.

      fact does not require fiction for balance (proudly a DFH)

      by mollyd on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:26:36 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  I've had teachers who'd get furious... (4+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        Arctic Belle, mollyd, chimene, madhaus

        ...if they were ever corrected by a student. And then I had my Advanced Chemistry teacher in high school who would purposefully make errors to encourage students to learn to look at work with a critical eye for correctness; she'd give extra credit points on the next respective test to any student who would point out her "errors". Let's just say, I had a far better experience in that latter class than I did the former. Hell, I've had teachers get angry at me for my raising my hand to volunteer an answer to something while no one else in the class would. I guess those such teachers viewed it as the rest of the class not thinking they needed to try to answer if they could rely on me to do so, but what it taught me was that I shouldn't even bother trying to answer it because the teacher gets angry at me for knowing the answer. It shouldn't be any surprise to me that that quickly incorporated into my social anxiety causing me to completely stop trying to participate in class.

    •  My daughter wasn't as strong as you, she quit. (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      My gun control petition was shot down.

      by 88kathy on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:49:11 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

  •  But now women will be equally liable to die with (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    skwimmer, mrkvica, chimene

    men in the pointless wars America conducts. Isn't that progress? I would have liked it better if instead of allowing women into combat, the US barred men from it.

    Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizzam!

    by fourthcornerman on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:28:16 AM PST

  •  What is JPL? (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    rolet, Don Quixote, chimene

    Like the subject says, "What is JPL?"

    Wealth doesn't trickle down -- it rises up.

    by elsaf on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:07:34 AM PST

  •  Much of the world still (6+ / 0-)

    hates a girl or woman who flouts narrow gender-role stereotypes, who isn't "feminine," who won't constantly put other peoples' needs ahead of her own, who's voluble and articulate and opinionated. No, I'm not exaggerating.

    Whereas a male can have an "off" semester, a girl or woman feels insane pressure to excel at every step of the way, or "she just doesn't have any talent." Nips many scientific careers in the bud.

    Thanks for speaking up about this.

    It's here they got the range/ and the machinery for change/ and it's here they got the spiritual thirst. --Leonard Cohen

    by karmsy on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:23:57 AM PST

  •  Consider forwarding this to JPL's (6+ / 0-)

    publicity department/speakers' bureau until you get someone who is concerned enough to follow it up, and/or at least to send it out to all JPL speakers as a cautionary tale with attached reprimand.

    We all understand that freedom isn't free. What Romney and Ryan don't understand is that neither is opportunity. We have to invest in it.
    Julian Castro, DNC 4 Sept 2012

    by pixxer on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:39:49 AM PST

  •  I used to wonder why I never won the cake walk. (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    rolet, chimene

    I never figured it out till my grand kids were in school.  Teachers cheat.  

    PS my blondie blue-eyes granddaughter wins all the time.

    My gun control petition was shot down.

    by 88kathy on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:46:45 AM PST

    •  ?? unknown cultural reference, define please? (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      shiobe, WakeUpNeo

      I have heard the term "cake walk" but really have no idea what it means. and/or especially re school? (I'm from the PNW)

      (oh before somebody snarls at me for using an unfamiliar acronym, that's "Pacific Northwest", states of Oregon. Washington & Idaho, usually)

      I have also never seen so many people so upset about an "unknown" acronym (JPL); and some of the reactions have been just stupefyingly nasty.

      "real" work : a job where you wash your hands BEFORE you use the bathroom...

      by chimene on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 07:53:32 PM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  I could be way off (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:

        but the vitrol reminds me of other comments I've read on other blog posts (not necessarily here at DKos) where a commentator desperately wishes to upset the author because they don't agree with what is said, so they find an insignificant thing to nitpick about and try to bring that author down.

        The acronym thing is part of that, and has no real bearing on my diary.  Neither does pedophilia, but someone brought that up. It's a way to distract from the real issue.

      •  Cake walk (1+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:

        It's a game similar to musical chairs where everyone walks in a circle divided into different sections.  (One person per section.)  The caller of the game plays some music as the players march around the circle, at some random time (like in musical chairs), the music stops.  Then the caller or an associate draws a number or picture from a bag, and whoever is standing in the matching section wins the cake or other prize.

        The term cakewalk is also used to mean something will be very easy, because this is an easy game to play, even preschoolers can do it.  Here's one image:

      •  Cakewalk (0+ / 0-)

        Here is something that Google provided when I searched for "cakewalk and racism"

        Globe Trotter Diaries

        (Not related, as far as I can tell, with the Harlem Globetrotters.)

        People with hatred in their hearts never live up to their full potential. It's very sad.

        by Nelsons on Sat Jan 26, 2013 at 06:14:30 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  Sexist Attitudes Alive (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    mrkvica, chimene, madhaus

    and kicking still.  I'm certain the  little boy picked up that he was "better" then the girl, esp since the teacher aided and abetted this!

    Watching T.V is a lesson in sexism: ALL the commercials feature women doing the cooking, cleaning and parenting.

    The more odious one features the man bragging that the toliet is fixed and then putting the plunger down on the kitchen counter cause duh men are stupid like that!

    Cue the wife cleaning up after him.

    Notice how dumb the men are always protrayed: their wife is also their mom.

    (It goes without saying they are almost all white and Hetro Native , Latino, Asian  & African Americans along with single and GLBT are almost or alway absent.)

    So the brainwashing starts early!  We were making progress on this back a generation ago.

    "I have to go... There are two gay men knocking on my door asking me if I need any abortions or marijuana. Diary, this may be my last entry" Facebook hysteria after 2012 election

    by pitbullgirl65 on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 08:25:20 AM PST

    •  Yes, but this can go both ways too (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      I've also been concerned with how quickly energetic boys are dismissed as hyper, not paying attention, insufficiently ADD medicated in class generally, or thought to be on a track to a less than manly adulthood if they take interest in arts, crafts, or music.

      Rick Perry - the greatest scientist since Galileo!

      by Bobs Telecaster on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 09:46:42 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

    •  I'm pretty sure the boy did (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      Pick it up because of how much more excited he kept getting.  The little girl was enthusiastic but not bouncy bouncy.

  •  I am sorry you had this experience (6+ / 0-)

    I worked at and with JPL for a while, and while it's tough to get in the door, for the most part the attitudes about who can and can't do science based on external characteristics are gone.

    I believe the person you encountered would be a volunteer rather than a JPL staffer. Of course, that is still a problem and I hope you will contact the office that coordinates these visits and let them know.

    Today, I feel that the barriers to young women in science are more subtle, issues like academic tenure being designed for the lives of young men and the real instability in most science jobs that make it difficult to have a family and a high impact career.

    Your mileage may vary, of course.

    Fry, don't be a hero! It's not covered by our health plan!

    by elfling on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 08:40:19 AM PST

    •  Academia is hard (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      chimene, nomandates

      My husband spent 7 years out from his PhD before he was hired on as a tenure-track professor, jumping from one job to another.  Luckily we didn't have kids and his jobs were in Southern California.  If you are a woman and you want a family as well as a career, that part is really tough, especially if you are moving cross-country every year for visiting professorships.  

  •  As a woman pursuing a PhD in (6+ / 0-)

    an engineering/science field... I never really felt or noticed it growing up or going through college. I get more jabs at why, being from California, would I ever go to some school called University of Michigan. Grad school at that too. % of women faculty in my dept is something ridiculously low like 24%.

    I'm not saying the problem doesn't exist. I take it in stride and face it straight on.

    You should hear me talk to technical support staff when an instrument breaks and I need to get a warranty part to fix it. I sound like an 8 year old so some of these people have a hard time taking me seriously. :P

    Why hello there reality, how are you doing?

    by Future Gazer on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 08:42:42 AM PST

    •  I was a little blonde haired girl (10+ / 0-)

      and we were doing thermal/vacuum testing for the Mars Observer Camera at a TRW facility.

      One day I came to the guard station to check in and he said, "oh, it's nice that they have this program where you can come observe" clearly thinking I was a high school student. "What will you be learning tonight?"

      I didn't exactly contradict him, just told him I was the lead engineer on a particular test and what we were hoping to learn from it. I admit it, I enjoyed his embarrassment. :-)

      The women before me had it harder and the women after have it easier. Much progress has occurred in the world.

      Fry, don't be a hero! It's not covered by our health plan!

      by elfling on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 08:55:26 AM PST

      [ Parent ]

      •  Much? I'm not so sure. (2+ / 0-)
        Recommended by:
        chimene, nomandates

        Hindsight -- from the 1950s as the only child (f) of a NASA engineer, through ~2006, when a stroke carried me out of academic tenure as a physicist -- suggests this particular struggle has some damnably intractable features.

        When the National Academy of Sciences comes closer to M-F equality, then I'll begin breathing easier.

        (-7.62,-7.33) Carbon footprint 12.6 metric tons. l'Enfer, c'est les autres.

        by argomd on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 10:00:33 AM PST

        [ Parent ]

  •  For people interested in the experience of women (5+ / 0-)

    in science, a book I really enjoyed is Arlene Blum's book Breaking Trail. I met her at an SF Kossacks event and really enjoyed talking to her. She is a top notch chemist as well as an accomplished mountain climber, and she is currently working as an activist to get nasty and unnecessary chemicals out of furniture.

    Fry, don't be a hero! It's not covered by our health plan!

    by elfling on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 09:00:50 AM PST

  •  Hundreds of studies on academic bias show the same (7+ / 0-)

    And another thing is, girls are forced to mature far past the mental age their male counterparts are even when they're very little. The whole saying "To get what's in a man's grasp a woman must be at least be twice as good and work four times as hard" is not only absolutely true but you see many effects at work, culturally:

    - Boy gets (as was literally shown in the example in the diary) coddled, applauded, tended to, gets all the attention and praise and thus develops the (over)confidence that makes him likely to expect more for less personal effort or commitment in life.

    - Girl has lived through this since she first became aware of her surroundings - and internalizes it of course rather than pointing to a factor outside of herself, creating a self-identity of inferiority because she can obviously compare the reaction she elicits to that of the boys'. She's forced to learn the hard ways of the world from very early on and (again as in the diary) doesn't get as much praise or even attention when she's much more sophisticated and intelligent than the male sitting beside her.

    It's also a fact that girls generally develop quicker when it comes to reasoning skills, logic, social interactions and maturity than boys when they're under the age of 14-15 and one can speculate that this is even so without the endemic sexism. On top of the physical obstruction caused by systemic misogyny that causes women to never be within reach of what men who are mediocre or worse can receive easily we have a world that, from the most formative years on, mass-molds women to feel inferior, to doubt themselves at every turn, to feel like they can't be good at anything but their restrictive gender role (generally this is confined to being "pretty", being remotely emotionally intelligent and being a "good mother and housekeeper"). Not only IS society literally created and arranged so it can cater as effectively to men as possible, little boys get fed that input that makes them feel like this is the most normal thing in the world and thus have even less incentive to change it when they grow up.

    •  well said! -nt (0+ / 0-)
    •  very well said (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      FloraLine, chimene

      You could see the boy, as well as the presenter, playing off each other. It really made the boy super excited to the point he said some stupid things.  But we're expected to take that type of behavior from boys.

    •  Yes, and the result is boys who grow up and (1+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:

      expect this kind of treatment and are ABSOLUTELY OUTRAGED when they are not pandered to.  They completely lose it, all while insisting that everything has always been done fairly, when "fairly" = they go first, they get extra turns, and they get extra credit for less work.

      This is part of why there's a subset of men who blow a gasket when any woman points out he's been coasting.  Because deep down he knows he has, but he doesn't want to face it.  There are even some of those types right here on this blog, minimizing, gainsaying, and shushing women who discuss anything that makes them uncomfortable.

      The little boy in this diary is well on his way to the Lowest Difficulty Setting.

  •  An experience with this as a male (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Eowyn9, catwho, chimene

    Back in the '80s I was doing some graduate level education. One day I was in a small class group, me and 3 or 4 female students and the professor. The professor spent the entire time speaking at me and not acknowledging the women. I think it made me almost as uncomfortable as the women. Seemed clearly bizarre and unacceptable back then. Sad to see it still happening.

    Regarding JPL, maybe the initials are more obvious to those of us old enough to remember the Apollo era, when they were in the news more often. Or maybe just those of us who were space geeks.

    Oh, and one thing that I appreciated about math and science since I was a kid was that it didn't matter who you were or what you looked like - you were either right or wrong. I think most scientists have this attitude but obviously not all.

    •  there are often subjective aspects to right (2+ / 0-)
      Recommended by:
      BRog, Mr Robert

      or wrong, even in science.

      If you're looking for a certain answer and someone gives you a different answer which is equally or more correct, you have to make a choice: acknowledge gracefully that either you didn't pose a well-formed question for the answer you sought and that the answer you received is also correct; or let your ego or other issues get in the way and block acknowledgement.

      People in the world of science may claim that there is no bias in recognizing who is right and wrong, but the continuing demographics of who gets funding and promotions and publication tells us otherwise.

      This is coming from a woman who was a great math student. Became a computer/math major in the '80s. And constantly spoke to how I love math because if my answer was right it didn't matter who I was.

      College and subsequent work settings proved me wrong.

      The question on the paper doesn't care. But the other people involved in the exchange of ideas and information do. And they have ways, from neanderthal to sophisticated, of having their biases play out in the field.

  •  it's sad (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    chimene, white blitz

    that both genders face some very unique challenges in our funding starved education system. Boys are rammed through an education system typically geared towards non-strengths ( less and less hands on etc, more sitting and attending to someone talking etc ) and girls face a 'credibility' issue in the sciences.
    While women certainly need encouragement to enter the sciences due to this, men could use some support and encouragement in completing school ( period ).
    Glad to see diarist is advocating correcting at least half of the issues, however.

    signed the parent of a boy and a girl who i want very much to see succeed in life.

  •  And the ex-science teacher is wrong about the (7+ / 0-)

    picture, especially if they had taken a photo of Utah's red rocks.


    Hey, Republicans, the whole world is watching.

    by TAH from SLC on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 09:44:49 AM PST

  •  I have experienced this as an adult at (3+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    shiobe, Mr Robert, chimene

    panels in conventions.

    I have seen this asynchronous treatment meted out by both men and women.

    Just this weekend, I sat in a panel discussion and watched as men were called on repeatedly while women were ignored.

    For all the so-called awareness we are supposed to have about these things, it appears it is going to take nearly forever to break these entrenched habits.

  •  Maybe this will give you some hope. (5+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    Mr Robert, catwho, chimene, nomandates, meralda

    My husband is a physics and astronomy professor who does undergraduate research projects with a handful of students every year. In the twelve years he's been doing this I've noticed that he has more and more female students because more and more female students are going into the hard sciences. These students are going on to grad school. Times are changing and it's not always obvious to people outside of higher education.

  •  "Girls are nerds too, bitches!" -- Alana (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    slinkerwink, chimene

    The tv channel TBS has a new show that premiered last week, new episode tonight, called King Of The Nerds. Alana, one of the female contestants, made that comment when, in the contestants dividing the group into two teams in the first episode, the last two standing yet unpicked were Alana and another woman.

    •  that just makes me sad. (0+ / 0-)

      But i think most people watching said show expect the women to be last-after all it's king of the nerds

      •  Perhaps. (0+ / 0-)

        Being a word-nerd myself, I actually argue that the there is no inherent gender in the word king, only in how we use the word. The word's etymology references a genetic origin-point of a group; and since we scientifically know that half of our genetics come from other mothers, I argue that the word itself can and should be used to reference both males and females.

        I remember being a kid watching Star Trek The Wrath Of Khan and thinking it was so weird that Kirk adressed to Saavik as "Mister" given that Saavik was female. Of course, I have since learned that Kirk was correct. Women actually should be addressed as "Mister" as much as men should be because the word has not one single thing to do with being male; the word itself is just an alternate spelling of "Master".

        With the first person booted from the competition being a dude, the group now stands at an even split male-to-female ratio. So at least there is hope that a woman will win.

  •  for future: you can "spontaneously" applaud (6+ / 0-)

    [the girl's] excellent answer if you sense she [in this case is not being recognized. The rest of the audience will follow your lead and the moderator will probably get the message. I do this often, btw.

  •  Have you ever noticed how many men are "brilliant" (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    but how very rare it is to hear women referred to as "brilliant?"    I finally heard a woman described as 'brilliant' (by another woman) on the radio, for the first time in an extremely long time.  

    I did extremely well in math in high school, as is typical with little to no encouragement, had stellar math scores on the SAT and received fan mail from MIT and Caltech trying to get me to attend and my own mother discouraged me from becoming too 'nerdy.'

  •  Red rocks mean nothing (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    white blitz

    I grew up in Georgia.  A pre-construction site around here could easily be mistaken for a landscape on Mars...

    The Cake is a lie. In Pie there is Truth. ~ Fordmandalay

    by catwho on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 11:29:40 AM PST

  •  We are still a long, long way (2+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    shiobe, harchickgirl1

    from true gender equality.

    Women largely stopped naming and shaming sexist behavior of this sort in the Reagan era, when "feminist" and "liberal" became right wing swear words. We need to get back to the naming and shaming -- and to making people self-conscious when they enforce gender stereotypes.

  •  Rock and hard place. (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    white blitz

    If this man had done the exact opposite, someone would have assumed he was a pedophile. I know that many of my male colleagues when I was teaching were very hesitant to be perceived as at all as giving too much attention to any or all girls for fear of false accusations.

  •  A facinating take on the problem (0+ / 0-)
  •  Last year, in college (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    A few boys in an upper-division Chemistry lab were talking during an experiment and mentioned that boys were "just better at Physics than girls." The other girl in the lab--there were six students--completely agreed with them, mentioned that she'd never done well at Physics, etc. I was too taken aback to say anything, but later wished that I had. (I got A's in the few Physics courses I took and enjoyed them immensely, although I'd had a less happy experience with the subject in high school.)

  •  A friend of mine from jr high/high school (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    works for JPL (astrophysicist, female). I'd be curious to know more about the presentation, where it was, who the presenter was. I maybe could pass along a little info about the reaction, seeing as she's also a mom to two smart daughters ;-)

    She's a Saturinist, though, so doesn't "do" Mars.

  •  Most elementary school teachers are taught to (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:

    recognized and correct the bias of selecting one gender over the other in calling on students.  Frankly, if you did not, you should have pointed out the presenter what he did, providing facts and pointedly noting responses.  Most teachers will make an effort to correct that bias.  Hopefully anyway.

  •  Please be assertive next time (5+ / 0-)

    I was once asked to observe a student teacher at a local high school.  I hadn't worked with her before, but she needed one more written observation to hand in to her teacher education program, the regular teacher had an emergency, and I had a free period so I agreed to supervise in the class and write up a report on her.

    Five minutes into the class, I started to notice that she was calling on the boys far more than the girls.  She was encouraging the boys more too in the way that you described above.  She was otherwise doing a good job with the teaching, but this was disturbing to me.

    So I got an extra piece of paper and started to keep track of whom she called on and a word or two stating how she'd given them feedback.  By the end of the 50 minute lesson, she'd called on boys 26 times and girls only 8 times.  She gave the boys lots of praise and encouraged them to expand on their answers.  The girls just got a simple "Good."  The little tally paper was a very dramatic and visual representation of sexism at work in the classroom.

    When it came time for me to sit down with her to go over my review, I presented the written observation first, which was very good.  Then I handed her my informal tally.  She was stunned.  She'd had absolutely no idea about her own bias.  She was so grateful to me for having pointed it out to her, and she resolved to keep it at the forefront of her mind in the future.  

    I imagine she was also grateful that I hadn't noted it on her formal report.  I didn't think that was necessary.  Here's why:  I believed that she was going to be a very good teacher, but like all students, she needed to grow and learn to become a professional. This was one hell of a learning experience for her.

    This young woman was an attractive, personable blonde.  My gut feeling was that she'd spent the past ten years seeking out and enjoying the admiration of the opposite sex, and she hadn't become self-aware enough yet to put that aside in the classroom.  I think our little conversation was the dividing line between identifying herself as girlfriend material vs. professional educator.

    Despite the best of intentions, some people just don't realize they're behaving in a biased way.  If you point it out to well-intentioned people, they immediately work to change their behavior.

    I didn't want to derail her studies.  I just wanted her to learn from the experience.  I truly believe she did.

    Perhaps this JPL presenter needed to be made aware of his own flaws.  It's not too late to write to him.

    ‘‘For Barack, success isn’t about how much money you make, it’s about the differences you make in people’s lives.’’ ~ Michelle Obama, DNC, 4 Sep 2012

    by harchickgirl1 on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 02:58:06 PM PST

  •  One can easily see (1+ / 0-)
    Recommended by:
    white blitz

    the same dynamic at family dinners, work settings etc.

    People lke to believe that it doesn't happen, but it does.

    The banks have a stranglehold on the political process. Mike Whitney

    by dfarrah on Thu Jan 24, 2013 at 06:00:29 PM PST

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